词汇

2020考研英语词汇之形态学概述

来源:跨考2019-04-02

  2020的考生已经进入复习的状态,然而对于考研小白来说,问题一箩筐。对于想要参加2020考研的小伙伴们来说,还处于摸索阶段,考研英语复习首先对于基础常识要有了解,复习之初最好把这些都搞明白,然后有针对性的开展复习,英语复习必然从背单词开始。下面总结了2020考研英语词汇之形态学概述,供大家参考。

  一、形态学的定义

  二、Word Formation

  (1) Derivation

  Derivation shows the relation between roots and suffixes. In contrast with inflections, derivations can make the word class of the original word either changed or unchanged.

  (2) Compound

  Compounds refer to those words that consist of more than one lexical morpheme, or the way to join two separate words to produce a single form, such as ice-cream, sunrise, paper bag, railway, restroom, simple-minded, wedding-ring, etc.

  (3) Invention

  Since economic activities are the most important and dynamic in human life, many new lexical items come directly from the consumer items, their producers or their brand names.

  发明法: 发明法又叫造词, 指直接用某一种商品的生产商或者商标的名字作为该类产品名称的造词方法, 例如,Kodak, Coke, nylon, granola 等, 它们都已经成为了代表新事物的新创词语。

  (4) Blending

  Blending is a relatively complex form of compounding, in which two words are blended by joining the initial part of the first word and the final part of the second word, or by joining the initial parts of the two words.

  混成法:混成法是一种相对复杂的复合形式,由两个单词混合而成, 一般把第一个单词的开头部分和第二个单词的最后部分连接起来, 或者是把两个单词的开头部分连接起来

  (5) Abbreviation / clipping

  A new word is created by cutting the final part, cutting the initial part or cutting both the initial parts of the original words.

  (6) Acronym

  Acronym is made up from the first letters of the name of an organization, which has a heavily modified headword.

  (7) Back-formation

  Back-formation refers to an abnormal type of word-formation where a shorter word is derived by deleting an imaged affix from a longer form already in the language.

  (6) Analogical creation

  The principle of analogical creation can account for the co-existence of two forms, regular and irregular, in the conjugation of some English verbs.

  (7) Class shift / Zero-derivation / conversion

  By shifting word class one can change the meaning of a word from a concrete entity or notion to process or attribution.

  (8) Borrowing

  English in its development has managed to widen her vocabulary by borrowing words from other languages. Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, Arabic and other languages have all played an active role in this process.

  三、Morpheme

  Inflection is the manifestation of grammatical relationships through the addition of inflectional affixes, such as number, person, finiteness, aspect and case, which do not change the grammatical class of the stems to which they are attached.

  屈折词素就是通过添加词缀体现语法关系,比如数、人称、有定性、体、格,不改变所附加词语的语法类。

  派生词缀是加在词干上构成新词的词缀。这种构成新词的方法叫派生法,所构成的词叫派生词。

  派生词缀又根据在单词中的位置分为前缀和后缀两类。前缀出现在单词的前边。前缀的主要功能是改变词干的语义,一般来说前缀不改变词的词性,如,当我们在friendly前边加上un-时,它的语义发生了改变,但是单词的词性不变。但是,也有一些例外情况,如:unearth, enlarge, prewar等。后缀加在词干的后边。后缀主要改变词性,也可以改变语义的功能。

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