翻译

2020考研英语翻译技巧之:【语法减词】

来源:跨考2019-06-19

  点击查看:2020考研英语翻译技巧详解大汇总

  翻译题型应该是整个复习过程中的一大难点。很多同学在做题中除了觉得自己的词汇和语法基础不够好之外,同时会发现自己的翻译技巧和翻译修养也同样不到位,不知道到该如何下手,一直刷题没有重点也很难取得良好的效果。下面为大家分享考研英语翻译技巧之语法减词,希望大家能够学以致用。

  翻译时常常有必要在译文的词量上作适当的增加,使译文既能忠实地传达原文的内容和风格,又能符合译入语的表达习惯。但是增词必须是根据具体情况增加非增加不可的词语。增词一般用于以下三种情况:一是为了语法上的需要;二是为了意义上的需要;三是为了修辞上的需要。

  一、从语法角度进行减省

  英汉两种语言在语法上差异较大,例如:英语有冠词,而汉语却没有;英语重形合、连接词较多,汉语重意合、连接词较少;英语中介词丰富,多达280多个,汉语中介词则较少,只有30来个;英语中经常使用代词,尤其是经常使用人称代词、关系代词等,而汉语中代词则用得较少;因此,英译汉时可根据具体情况将冠词、连接词、介词、代词略去,使译文练达晓畅。例如:

  (1) I know my friends from the feel of their faces.

  我靠触摸脸庞来辨认朋友。

  (2) Ice is a solid. If we heat it, it melts and becomes water.

  冰是固体,如果加热,就融化成水。

  (3) John got up very early in the morning. He put on his jacket, sat down at his desk and began to do his homework.

  约翰早晨起床很早,他穿上夹克,就坐在桌旁开始做家庭作业。

  (4) But at the present moment the whole road looked rather pretty, for the sun had just set in splendor,and the equalities of rent were drowned in a saffron afterglow.

  但此时整条路看起来都挺美,金灿灿的太阳刚落下山,橙红色的余辉掩盖了房屋的种种差异。

  (5) He had a shelf there, where he kept his Bohemian papers and his pipes and tobacco, and his shears and needles and thread and tailor's thimble.

  他放在那儿有一个架子,摆着他的波希米亚报纸、烟斗、烟叶,还有大剪刀、针、线,以及裁缝用的顶针。

  (6) Most of the people who appear most often and most gloriously in the history books are great conquerors and generals and soldiers…

  史书上最经常出现、最为显赫的人物,大多是些伟大的征服者、将军和军事家。

  (7) The city has a dense manufacturing population.

  这个城市有稠密的工业人口。

  (8)The products should be sampled to check their quality before they leave the factory.

  产品出厂前应该进行抽样检查。

  (9) The mother and the eldest daughter weeded the ridges, passing before the others…A younger son,of twelve years, brought sea sand in a donkey's creels from a far corner of the field. They mixed the sand with the black clay. The fourth child, still almost an infant, staggered about near his mother, plucking weeds slowly and offering them to his mother as gifts.

  母亲和大女儿在除垄上的草,把旁人甩在后面……二儿子十二岁,从老远的地头把海滩上的沙子装进鱼篮,赶着毛驴驮了回来。他们把黑土掺上了沙子。老四还是个小不点儿,在母亲身边遥遥晃晃转悠着,慢吞吞地拔起杂草,当礼物送给母亲。

  (10) Come if you like.高兴来就来。

  (11) As it is late, let us go to bed.不早啦,睡吧!

  (12) I framed the words in my mind: "Pardon me, but have I done something to offend you?"

  我心里在嘀咕:"对不起,我有什么举止行为冒犯你了吗?"

  (13). You hear it from the trackers, a more breathless chant, as they pull desperately against the current, half a dozen of them perhaps if they are, taking up a wupan, a couple of hundred if they are hauling a splendid junk, its square sail set, over a rapid.

  纤夫拼命拉纤逆流而上时,你就会听见他们唱着较急促的号子。拉五板木船时,或许五六人就行,但当拉着鼓着横帆的大船过急滩时,那就得要二三百人。

  (14). If you are a twinkler, you have the ability to walk into a room and bring the sunshine with you,making everyone else want to bask in it.

  满怀喜悦的人能把阳光带进他所走进的房间,使别人愿意沐浴在这阳光中.

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