语法长难句

2020考研英语:语法精炼秘籍之代词(上)

来源:跨考2018-12-27

  2019研究生入学考试的笔试也落下了帷幕,290万考生也终于卸下了沉重的考研包袱,终于可以肆无忌惮的进行身心的放松了。对于想要参加2020考研的小伙伴们来说,基础复习是时候开始进行了,语法的重要性小编已经说过很多次了,为了方便大家记忆,小编整理了考研英语语法精炼秘籍,希望可以帮助大家更方便的学习英语~

  一、人称代词

  (一)人称代词的主格、宾格

  人称代词的主格在句中作主语、表语,宾格作及物动词或介词的宾语,主格和宾格不可混用。

  例句: When school was over, Jack and me went home together.

  分析: me应改为I,因为它处在主语的位置上。

  译文:Jack和我在放学后一起回家。

  例句: Each cigarette which a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect. (1996年第14题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中which a person smokes是修饰each cigarette的定语从句,he指代前面的a person。

  译文: 一个人吸的每一支烟都对他的身体有害,最终他将因吸烟患上一种严重的疾病。

  (二) it的用法

  1. 代替除人以外的一切生物或事物(可代替单个词、词组或句子)。

  例句: The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes. (2000年第19题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中he composes是省略了关系代词which/that的定语从句,修饰the moment, 而almost as much as the composer作状语修饰enjoys。

  译文: 理想的听众是当音乐奏响时既能置身其中又可超然其外的人,并且几乎可以像作曲家在创作音乐时那样享受音乐。

  例句: You have saved my life and I will never forget it.

  分析: it指you have saved my life。

  译文: 你曾经挽救过我的生命,我决不会忘记这件事。

  2. 表示时间、距离、天气等自然现象。

  例句: It is time now to tell the Americans they are on the wrong track.

  译文: 现在是时候告诉美国人他们走错路了。

  例句: She didn't come back until it was 12:00.

  译文: 直到12点她才回来。

  例句: It is about 50 miles to school.

  译文: 到学校大概50英里。

  3. 作形式主语(真正的主语为动名词、不定式或主语从句)

  例句: But it's interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress free, happiness enhancing parenthood aren't in some small, subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience. (选自2011年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句。其中it是形式主语,真正的主语是to wonder if the images aren't contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience;we see every week of stress free, happiness enhancing parenthood是一个定语从句,修饰the images;介词短语in some small, subconscious way作状语,表示方式。

  译文: 我们想知道每周看到的“毫无压力、提升幸福感”的为人父母形象是否在以某种细微的、潜意识的方式加剧我们对现行生活体验的不满呢?这很有意思。

  例句: In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories. (2007年第49题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。it是形式主语,定语从句who do not have a clear grasp...Constitution修饰journalists,can do是宾语从句how...的谓语部分。

  译文: 事实上,很难想象那些对加拿大宪法的基本要点缺乏清晰了解的新闻记者能胜任政治新闻的报道工作。

  4. 作形式宾语

  例句: The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. (选自2011年Text 2)

  分析: 该句是简单句。其中it作形式宾语,真正的宾语是to be between jobs or to leave a bad one,more acceptable作宾语补足语。

  译文: 金融危机已经使得等待工作机会或者辞去糟糕的工作这种行为更容易被人接受了。

  例句: There are over 100 night schools in the city, making it possible for a professional to be reeducated no matter what he does. (1998年第7题)

  分析: 该句是简单句。no matter what he does在句中作状语,表示让步,分词短语making...作over 100 night schools的补足语。

  译文: 这个城市有100多所夜校,这使得专业人员无论从事什么工作都有可能接受再教育。

  5. 引出强调句(强调谓语以外的其他成分)

  用强调句型: It is/was+被强调部分+that(who/whom/which)+其他部分,被强调部分常为主语(从句)、宾语(从句)、状语(从句),强调状语时不能用when或where,要用that,翻译成汉语时被强调部分常用“是”、“正是”等来表示强调含义。判断是不是强调句的标准是去掉“it is/was”和“that(who/whom/which)”,如果余下部分是一个完整的句子,说明原句是一个强调句,否则就是一个由it作形式主语的句子。

  例句: It was during the same time that the communications revolution speeded up, beginning with transport, the railway, and leading on through the telegraph, the telephone, radio, and motion pictures into the 20th century world of the motor car and the airplane. (选自2002年Use of English)

  分析: 该句是复合句。分词短语beginning with...作主语the communications revolution的补足语,该强调句强调状语during the same time。

  译文: 与此同时,通讯革命也在加速发展,从交通运输、铁路开始,发展到电报、电话、无线电和电影再到20世纪的汽车和飞机。

  例句: Perhaps it is humankind's long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating. (选自1998年Text 1)

  分析: 该句是简单句。句子主干为humankind's long suffering...makes...so fascinating。其中短语at the mercy of...意为“听凭……摆布,完全受……支配”。

  译文: 也许正是由于人类长期听任旱涝之灾的摆布,才使得让洪水听从人类的调遣这种理想令人如此痴迷。

  二、物主代词

  (一)物主代词包括形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词

  形容词性物主代词只能修饰名词而不能代替名词,而名词性物主代词可以代替名词词组,即“形容词性物主代词+前面所提到的名词”。

  例句: All the off shore oil explorers were in high spirits as they read affectionate letters from their families. (1998年第35题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。出现了as引导的时间状语从句。

  译文: 海洋石油勘探队员们读情深意浓的家书时个个情绪高涨。

  例句: He does not qualify as a teacher of English as his pronunciation is terrible, but hers is quite good.

  分析: 该句是并列句。第一部分是个复合句,出现了as引导的原因状语从句。

  译文: 他因为糟糕的发音而不够资格当英文老师,但她的发音却非常好。

  (二)不同性别的形容词性物主代词修饰名词。

  如:不同性别的形容词性物主代词同时修饰一个名词时,男性物主代词置于女性物主代词前。

  例句: Who do you like best, his or her friends?

  译文: 你最喜欢他的还是她的朋友?

  (三)名词性物主代词(除its外)可与介词of搭配,构成双重所有格

  a/an/some/any/no/another/each/such/several/which/this/that/these/those+名词+of+名词性物主代词。

  如:

  a book of mine

  no fault of hers

  that pen of his

  例句: In March 1998, a friend of Williams's got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for additions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams's gambling problems. (选自2006年Part B)

  分析: 该句是简单句。got和wrote是两个并列的谓语动词。

  译文: 1998年3月,威廉姆斯的一个朋友把他强行送入一家戒赌治疗中心,并写信通知赌场有关威廉姆斯的赌博问题。

  三、反身代词

  反身代词在句中作宾语、表语和同位语,使用时注意反身代词与其指代对象在人称、数和性上保持一致。

  例句: According to one belief, if truth is to be known, it will make itself apparent, so one had better wait instead of searching for it. (2001年第3题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中had better+ do意为“最好做某事”。

  译文: 按照一种观点,真理若想众人皆知,真理就应该显而易见,所以人们最好是等待而不是去探寻它。

  例句: Prof. White, my respected tutor, frequently reminds me to avail myself of every chance to improve my English. (1999年第35题)

  分析: 该句是简单句。avail oneself of...意为“利用(机会等)”。

  译文: 我敬爱的导师怀特教授经常提醒我抓住每个机会提高英语水平。

  例句: The house belongs to myself.(作介词宾语)

  译文:这套房子是我自己的。

  You yourself did wrong to him.(作同位语)

  译文:是你对他犯了错。

  四、相互代词

  相互代词只有each other和one another两种,通常前者表示两者之间的相互关系,后者表示两者以上的人或事物之间的相互关系。

  例句: Language, culture, and personality may be considered independently of each other in thought, but they are inseparable in fact. (1996年第31题)

  分析: 该句是由but引导的并列句。

  译文: 在意识形态中,语言、文化和个性可能被认为是相互独立的,但事实上它们是不可分割的。

  例句: In Europe, as elsewhere, multi media groups have been increasingly successful groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another. (2005年第47题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。句子主干为multimedia groups have been increasingly successful groups。定语从句which bring together...修饰groups,其中television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses作bring的宾语,即bring...together, 另一个定语从句that work in relation to one another修饰其前面的几个名词。

  译文: 在欧洲,像在其他地方一样,传媒集团扩张越来越成功,这些集团将相关的电视、 广播、报纸、杂志和出版社组合在一起。

  注意: 相互代词的所有格形式为each other's,one another's,其后接不可数名词或可数名词的复数形式,不能接单数可数名词。

  五、指示代词

  (一)this,that和these,those

  指示代词this和that的复数形式分别为these和those,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语和定语,this和these表示较近的空间或时间,that和those表示较远的空间和时间。

  例句: In the past, most foresters have been men, but today, the number of women pursuing this field is climbing.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 过去林业工人多半是男人,可如今从事这一行业的妇女人数在增加。

  例句: We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. (2004年第62题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句为We are obliged to them。because引导一个状语从句,定语从句who spoke them修饰the peoples,as引导的句子可以看做插入语,补充说明 some of these languages have since vanished的原因。

  译文: 我们之所以感激他们(两位先驱),是因为在此以后,这些语言中有一些已经不复存在了,这是由于使用这些语言的民族或是消亡了,或是被同化而丧失了自己的本族语言。

  (二)指示代词that和those也可用于比较结构,表示前面提到的东西,避免重复

  例句: The number of registered participants in this year's marathon was half that of last year's. (1996年第7题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,本句的主语是单数名词number,因此后面指代它的代词只能是单数that,谓语用单数。

  译文: 今年登记参加马拉松赛跑的人数是去年的一半。

  例句: His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision. (2006年第47题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句为His function is analogous to that of a judge。定语从句who must accept...修饰a judge,介词短语in as obvious a matter as possible作状语,用来说明reveal的方式,另一个定语从句which led him to his decision修饰the course of reasoning。

  译文: 他的职责与法官相似,必须承担这样的责任: 用尽可能明了的方式来展示自己作出决定的推理过程。

  例句: These bunches of flowers are more beautiful than those we bought yesterday.

  译文: 这些束花比昨天我们买的那些花漂亮多了。

  (三)指示代词such在句中作主语、表语和定语

  例句: Such is what you want me to do.

  Such are the meanings of authentic love.

  (such作表语时,往往置于句首)

  注意: such用作定语时和副词so的区别在前面副词一节中已提到。

  (四)指示代词same的用法

  在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语,其前与定冠词the连用。

  例句: Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements — usually carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes nitrogen. (选自1996年Cloze Test)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 因为是由同样的元素构成——通常是碳、氢、氧,有时还有氮,所以各种维生素都很相似。

  六、疑问代词

  疑问代词用来构成特殊疑问句,其中who(whom/whose)指人,what指物,which指选择对象。

  例句: What's the difference between love and fondness or what is the nature of luck and coincidence? (选自2007年Text 2)

  分析: 该句是由or连接的两个简单句(特殊疑问句)。

  译文: 爱情与喜欢有什么区别,幸运和巧合的本质是什么?

  七、关系代词

  关系代词包括who(whom,whose),that和which。that只能引导限制性定语从句,其他关系代词既可引导限制性定语从句也可引导非限制性定语从句,具体用法详见定语从句一节。

  八、不定代词

  (一)both,all

  1. both用于两者,all用于三者及三者以上,其后接名词复数形式,谓语动词用复数,在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。

  例句: Similar elements in the prehistoric remains from both areas suggest that Indians and their neighbors had maintained distant but real connections even before 1,500 BC.

  分析: 该句是复合句,suggest是主句的谓语动词,that Indians and their neighbors...是一个宾语从句。

  译文: 来自两个地区的史前遗迹中的类似成分表明: 印度人和他们的邻居甚至在公元前1500年前就维持着遥远但真实的联系。

  例句: In the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of industrialization — with all the far reaching changes in social patterns that followed — was spread over nearly a century, whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so. (2000年第74题)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,whereas连接两个并列分句,其中前一个分句的主句部分为the process of industrialization was spread over nearly a century,而介词短语with...为主语补足语,定语从句that followed修饰changes。

  译文: 在早先实现工业化的欧洲国家中,其工业化进程以及随之而来的对社会结构有深远影响的变革延续了将近一个世纪,而现如今,一个发展中国家只用十年左右的时间就可以经历同样的过程。

  2. all作代词时,其后谓语动词可以是单数也可以是复数。

  例句: All the information we have collected in relation to that case adds up to very little.

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干部分是All the information...adds up to very little,we have collected in relation to that case 是修饰the information的定语从句。

  译文: 我们搜集到的与那件事有关的所有信息都是没有意义的。

  例句: All but he and I are going to attend the meeting.

  译文: 除了我和他之外,所有人都去开会了。

  3. both,all,every和not连用时表示部分否定。

  例句:But not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic system (the “emotional brain” ) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex (the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. (选自2005年Text 3)

  分析: 该句是由分号及while连接的并列句,分号相当于连词and,not all...表示部分否定。

  译文: 但并不是大脑的所有部分都参与活动,控制情绪的大脑部位异常活跃,然而控制智力和推理能力的前额皮质却相对平静。

  例句: Not everyone sees that process in perspective. (选自2002年Use of English)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 不是每个人都能正确看待这个过程。

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