语法长难句

2020考研英语几大句型帮你搞定长难句

来源:跨考2019-04-11

  2020考研的号角已经拉响,参加2020考研的同学们也已经投身到战斗中了,英语复习一直是考研路上的一道难以跨越的砍,其中考研英语长难句结构复杂,理解起来很有难度,因而需要考生对句子的结构和组成部分有深刻的理解。小编整理了考研英语长难句几大句型,希望能够帮助广大考生顺利破解长难句。

  1.复合句型

  •状语从句

  (1)理论常识

  状语从句,属于副词性从句,简单说就是从句在句子中担任状语,分为时间、目的、地点、条件、方式、让步、比较、结果、原因9种状语从句。

  时间引导词:when , after , before , while , until , till , since , as soon as , everytime , the moment等

  地点引导词:where , wherever等

  原因引导词:because , since=now that , as等

  条件引导词:if , whether , unless , as long as ,on condition that , providing that等

  结果引导词:so / such ... that , so等

  目的引导词:in order that , so that等

  让步引导词:though , although , however , whatever=no matter what even if , even though , as (倒装) 等

  方式引导词:as , as if等

  比较引导词:than , as ... as , the more ... , the more ... 等

  (2)真题举例

  例句1.Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to see that all subjects,friends and strangers,were taken from the same population.

  重点词汇及短语:

  draw from 从……中得到,从……提取

  European n. 欧洲人 adj. 欧洲的;欧洲人的;European Union 欧洲联盟,欧盟

  Europe n. 欧洲;欧盟;欧洲大陆

  extraction n. 取出;提炼;mineral/oil etc extraction 矿物;石油等的开采

  extract v. 提取,提炼;(从书中)选取,摘录;获取,得到好处

  extract sth from sth 从……获取……

  extractor n. 抽取;抽取器

  be taken from 来自;从……摘取

  句子成分分析:该句的主干结构是...care was taken...。Though引导的是让步状语从句,to see...population是不定式结构作目的状语,that引导的从句作see的宾语。

  不定式用作目的状语时常位于句首在或句末。一般说来,用于句首属于强调性用法,即强调动词的目的。

  从语法上看,不定式表示目的通常是指发生在谓语动作之后的动作,也就是说,若以谓语动作发生的时间为标准,用作目的状语的不定式是一个尚未发生的将来动作。

  参考译文:尽管所有的实验对象都是从祖籍欧洲的人口中选择,但是研究人员也花费了精力来确保所有的实验对象,无论是朋友还是陌生人,都是来自同一群体。

  例句2:Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, tying cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride’s and groom’s wrists, and passing a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the union.

  •重点词汇及短语:

  ceremony n.仪式

  Ritual仪式的,礼节性的

  threads soaked in holy water ;Thread线;holy water 圣水;soak 浸泡了圣水的线

  wrist n.手腕

  bless the union庆祝结合

  句子成分分析: 该句的主干结构是Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, tying cotton threads...and passing a candle...。过去分词短语soaked in holy water作后置定语修饰cotton threads,介词短语around the bride’s and groom’s wrists和 around a circle of happily married and respected couples作状语,不定式短语to bless the union作目的状语。

  不定式作状语时常用于表示目的、条件、结果。作目的状语时可用 in order to, so as to代替(注意:so as to不能置于句首);作结果状语时常用于only to, so...as to, such...as to, enough...to, too...to等结构中(注意:too...to结构中如出现anxious/eager/pleased/ready等词,则不再表示否定结果,而表示程度,意为very。

  参考译文:婚礼仪式包含剪发仪式、把圣水浸泡过的棉线系在新郎和新娘的手腕上、把蜡烛在婚姻美满且受人尊敬的夫妻中传一圈以示对新婚夫妻的祝福等部分。

  •定语从句

  (1)理论常识

  在复合句中作定语,修饰主句中某一名词或代词的从句。

  结构:先行词+关系词(分为关系副词和关系代词)+从句

  关系代词(that , who , which , whose , as)

  关系副词(when , where , why , how)

  定语从句分为限制性定语从句及非限制定语从句,限定从直接放在先行词后,非限定从与先行词之间要加逗号。

  (2)真题举例

  例句1:California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling,particularly one that upsets the old assumption that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest.

  •重点词汇及短语:

  justice n. 司法制度;公正;公正性;justification n. 正当的理由

  refrain from 克制;抑制

  sweeping adj. 影响广泛的

  assumption n. 假定,假设;承担,就任

  possession n. 拥有;所有物,财物;in possession of 拥有……

  suspect v. 猜测,怀疑;认为(某人)有犯罪嫌疑

  【用法】suspect sb of doing sth 怀疑某人做……

  句子成分分析:本句的主干结构为California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling...。第一个that引导的定语从句修饰one。在该定语从句中,还有一个that引导的同位语从句,解释说明the old assumption。

  在该同位语从句中,主干结构为authorities may search through the possessions of suspects...。被修饰的词不同:同位语从句一般修饰表示概括意义的抽象名词,如fact,news,truth, hope, promise, answer, belief, condition, doubt等。

  定语从句所修饰的名词则没有这样的限定。从句的作用不同:同位语从句表示同位名词的具体内容,而定语从句是对先行词的限制、说明。引导词不同:what,how,whether等不能用来引导定语从句,但可用于引导同位从句。

  参考译文:加利福尼亚州呼吁法官不要做出太笼统的裁定,尤其不要扰乱以前的假设,即在逮捕嫌犯时当局可以搜查其财产。

  例句2:As you will come to see,knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.

  •重点词汇及短语:

  come to do sth 来做某事;开始做某事

  mental health 心理健康

  available adj. 可用的,可获得的;有空的;没有伴侣的

  availability n. 有效性;实用性

  allow sb to do sth 允许某人做某事

  slow down 减速,放慢速度 【反义词组】speed up 加速

  句子成分分析:该句是一个复合句,主干为knowing that...and knowing to trust it allow us...。

  as指代整个句子的内容。that mental health is always available为宾语从句作knowing的宾语。knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it其实是两个并列的主语,而后面的allow us...为谓宾部分。

  as引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个句子的内容,意为“正如……,就像……”,从句可以置于句首、句中或句尾。

  例如:As everyone knows, China is a beautiful country with a long history.注意:as和which 引导的非限制性定语从句有一定的区别:as和which都可以指代主句中的一部分内容或整句内容,有时可以互换。

  但是 as引导的非限制性定语从句位置比较灵活,可以放在主句前面、中间或者后面,一般用逗号与主句隔开。which引导的非限制性定语从句则只能放在主句后面。

  参考译文:你会慢慢发现,明白心理健康一直在身边并且坚信它,这可以让我们放慢节奏、享受当下、快乐地生活。

  •同位语从句

  (1)理论常识

  同位语从句是对其前面的抽象名词(例如:idea , insistence , instruction , order , plan , proposal等)进行解释说明,被解释说明的词和同位语在逻辑上是主表关系。同位语从句的结构一定是先行词加引导词加上从句的构成,that并不是唯一可以引导同位语从句的引导词,whether , why , who . 从句一定要具有完整的句子结构,主谓宾都必须齐全,引导词不充当任何成分。

  常见先行词:

  belief , fact , hope , idea , doubt , news , rumor , conclusion , evidence ,suggestion , problem , order , answer , decision , discovery , explanation , information , knowledge , law , opinion , truth , promise , report , thought , statement , rule , possibility .

  (2)真题举例

  例句1:The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor,the idea goes,and they'd feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in.

  •重点词汇及短语:

  loyal adj. 忠实的,忠诚的 ≠ disloyal;be loyal to 对……忠诚

  loyalty n. 忠诚,忠实,忠贞

  favor v. 更喜欢;偏向 n. 恩惠;支持,赞同;in favo(u)r of sth 支持,赞许……

  sustain v. 保持,维持 = maintain;遭受,经受believe in 信任,信赖

  句子成分分析:本句主干the idea goes...,正常语序应为The idea goes (that) the most loyal customers would... and they'd feel like they were... believe in。

  The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor和they'd feel like they were helping...believe in为and连接的两个并列的同位语从句,解释the idea。

  在第一个同位语从句中,they favor是一个定语从句,修饰the product。在第二个同位语从句中,like等同于as if,其后紧跟的内容为表语从句。在这个表语从句中,包含一个定语从句they believe in,修饰something。

  表语从句放在连系动词之后,充当复合句中的表语。可接表语从句的连系动词有be,look,seem,sound,appear等。可引导表语从句的词有:从属连词whether,as,as if / though,连接代词who,whom,whose以及because,why等。

  参考译文:这种想法是,最忠诚的顾客仍然愿意买他们喜欢的产品,他们还会觉得自己在帮助维持他们信任的产品的质量。

  例句2:Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firms' political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency:Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.

  •重点词汇及短语:

  analysis n.(对事物/形势/问题的)分析

  rule out 排除,拒绝考虑

  influence n. 影响(力),作用 v.统治;控制;

  account n. 叙述,报道;账户

  take account (n.)of sth = take sth into accout 考虑到某事

  leniency =lenience n. 仁慈,宽大

  contribute v. 促成,造成(某事发生);捐献,捐助

  political campaigns政治活动

  fine n. 罚金,罚款v. 对……处以罚款

  句子成分分析:

  本句主干:Their analysis ruled out the possibility...。that引导一个同位语从句,同位语从句中的it was... rather than... that...为强调句结构,其中firms' political influence, rather than their CSR stand为强调部分。

  在这个强调结构中,accounted for为真正的谓语,the leniency为真正的宾语。冒号后面的内容是对前面内容的进一步补充说明。英语中表示强调时有一个很重要的句型,那就是“it is (was)+被强调成分+that (who)+其他”结构。

  强调句中的连接词一般为that(可指物,也可指人)或who(指人)。若被强调的是状语,则只能用that ,而不能用when 或者where,且连接词都不能省略。

  参考译文:他们的分析排除了让公司受到宽大处理的原因是其政治影响力而非其企业社会责任立场的这种可能性:对政治活动投入更多的公司并没有处以更少的罚金。

  2.并列句型

  (1)理论常识

  由并列连词连接、含有两个或更多主谓结构的句子叫并列句。

  表示转折对比关系的并列连词

  but

  yet 但是;尽管如此

  while 而,但是,可是,却

  表示因果关系的并列连词

  for 因为

  so 因此

  表示选择关系的连词or

  表示并列关系的并列连词

  and 和,同,与,又,并且

  not only ... but also ... 不仅……而且

  neither ... nor ... 既不……也不

  both ... and ... 既……又

  其他并列连词

  not ... but ... 不是……而是

  rather than 而不是;与其……宁愿

  when 正当那时,相当于and at that time

  (2)真题举例

  例句1:They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections when facing severe,urgent circumstances,and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while a warrant is pending.

  •重点词汇及短语:

  invalidate v. 使无效;证明(信念或解释)是无效的

  severe v. 非常严重的;困难的

  take reasonable measures to 采取合理的措施去……

  warrant n. 令状,许可

  pending n. 在等待……之际

  句子成分分析:本句是一个由and连接的并列句。and前面的主干结构为They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections...,when facing severe, urgent circumstances是时间状语从句,由于face的逻辑主语与主句主语一致,因此省略主语和系动词,face用现在分词形式。

  and之后的句子主干结构为they could take reasonable measures...,to ensure that...pending是目的状语,that引导的从句作ensure的宾语。

  状语从句中的省略原则是:如果从句主语与主句主语一致,或从句的主语是it,可省略从句的连接词、主语和be动词,只保留分词和其它成分,从而使语言更加简洁明了。

  比如时间状语中的省略、地点状语中的省略、让步状语从句中的省略等。例如:The river is clean where (it is) deep.

  参考译文:在严重、紧急的情况下,他们还可以忽视第四修正案的保护。此外,在等待许可令签发期间,他们还可以采取合理措施保证手机里的数据不被删除或篡改。

  例句2.While polls show Britons rate "the countryside" alongside the royal family, Shakespeare and the National Health Serivce (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.

  •重点词汇及短语:

  poll n. 民意测验;民意调查;选举投票;计票

  alongside prep. 在……旁边;沿着……的边;与……一起

  royal adj. 国王的;女王的;皇家的;王室的

  Rate sth as sth 认为...,as部分是宾语的补充成分

  Proudest最骄傲的

  Limit 限制

  句子成分分析: 本句是由while构成的前后两个具有转折意思的并列句,while从句内容较长,到最后一个逗号处才结束。其中Shakespeare and the National Health Serivce (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country为省略了that的宾语从句,句中有着rate A as B的结构,其中rate为“排名”的意思。

  两个或两个以上的简单句用并列连词连在一起构成的句子,叫做并列句,其基本结构是“简单句+并列连词+简单句”。 并列句中的各简单句意义同等重要,相互之间没有从属关系,是平行并列的关系。并列连词有:and, but, or, so等。

  参考译文:尽管民意调查显示,英国人将乡村列为仅次于王室、莎士比亚和国家医疗体系之后最令他们骄傲的事,但是乡村在政治方面的支持还是有限的。

  3.倒装句

  (1)理论常识

  倒装句的几种形式

  1) 以here , there ,then , now , next引出的倒装句

  Here comes the special guest of the party .

  There seem to be many beautiful girls in the university .

  2) 以表地点的介词短语引出的倒装句

  At the school gate stood an old woman .

  Under the tree are sitting some students .

  On the bed lay a big teddy bear .

  注意:主语为代词是不用倒装。

  3) 以表示方位的副词引出的倒装句

  Off went the horse .

  Down fell a dozen apples .

  4) 否定词或具有否定意义的词及词组用在句首

  Never have I seen such a good teacher .

  Not a moment did he waste on campus .

  By no means should she be left alone .

  Under no circumstances will I believe you .

  5) only置于句首

  Only in this way can we make a difference .

  6) as / though引导让步状语从句

  Rich as he is , he spends a cent on charity .

  Try as / though he does , he never seems able to get a high score in the exams .

  7) 在虚拟条件句中,连词if省略时,即将were , had , should等词提到句首

  Were I you , I would take this chance .

  Should he come tomorrow , he would help us to settle the problem .

  (2)真题举例

  Odd though it sounds , cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics , and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.

  •重点词汇及短语:plausible,adj. 貌似可信的;consequence,n. 结果、推论;astrophysicist,n. 天体物理学家

  参考译文:尽管它听起来很奇怪,宇宙膨胀说是在基础粒子物理学中的一些公认的观点在科学上貌似可信的推论,并且很多天体物理学家在近十年中已经相信这种理论是真实的。 1.插入句型结构

  (1)理论常识

  插入结构表示说话人的态度和看法,解释或者说明整个句子,去掉之后句子仍然完整。插入结构的成分可以是副词、形容词短语、介词短语、不定式短语、分词短语或者主谓结构。在这就不一一论述了。但值得注意的是插入语的翻译,有些插入语,尤其是位于句首的插入语,可保持原文中的词序。然而,在许多情况下,需要对英语原文句子的顺序作必要的调整,使译文符合汉语习惯。

  (2)真题举例

  The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: " We are aware of impact and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people".

  •重点词汇及短语:

  State 陈述,声明

  newly adv. 新近,最新

  revise v. 修订;复习

  charter n.章程,宪章

  impact n. 撞击力,冲击;巨大影响

  Danish Fashion Ethical Charter丹麦时装伦理章程

  句子成分分析: 本句的主干部分为The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states。

  后面为阐述的观点,也是一个独立的句子,在该部分里We are aware of impact为主干,后面为省略了that的定语从句,对先行词impact进行解释说明,并且该部分中especially on young people作为插入语,补充说明前面的body ideals,意思是“对时尚产业尤其对年轻人在理想体型方面有着重要的影响”。

  插入语大都是对一句话进行附加说明或解释,通常由一个词、一个短语或一个句子构成,常置于句首、句中或句末,一般用逗号或破折号与句子隔开。

  参考译文:新修订的《丹麦道德时尚宪章》明确指出:“时尚产业对人们——尤其是年轻人,在对理想体型追求方面有着重要的影响,我们意识到自己的这种影响并将担负起相应的责任。”

  4.强调句型结构

  (1)理论常识

  强调主要有两种形式:

  1)强调谓语

  Eg1 : I love you . —> I do love you . —> I did love you .

  Eg2 : Cell phone / Internet / computer brings us convenience .

  —> Cell phone / Internet / computer does bring us convenience .

  2) 强调句式:It is / was + 被强调成分 +that / who + 句子其他成分。

  步骤

  a. 先写出正确的简单句、并列句或复合句,明确单句的各个成分。

  b. 在被强调成分(除谓语和补语外)两边添加it is / was 和that / who, 其他成分不变,必要时调整顺序。

  强调句式特征:去掉it is / was ... that / who结构,整个句子无冗余或成分残缺。

  Eg1 : My mother always encourages me not to lose heart when I have difficulties in study .

  —> It is my mother who / that always encourages me not to lose heart when I have difficulties in study .

  —> It is when I have difficulties in study that my mother always encourages me not to lose heart .

  (2)真题举例

  Thus , in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers , coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it .

  •重点词汇解析:couple with 与……相结合;maximize,v. 取……最大值、达到最大值

  (3)参考翻译:因此,在美国的经济体系中,个体消费者的需求与商人试图最大化其利润的欲望和个人想最大化其收入效用的欲望相结合,一起决定了什么应该被制造,以及资源如何被用来制造它们。

  5.否定句型结构

  (1)理论常识

  1) 部分否定

  Not both of them are my brothers .

  Both of them are not my brothers .

  All is not gold that glitters .

  2) 双重否定

  双重否定分为三种:

  肯定型:There are no roses without thorns .

  强调型:I just can’t do nothing .

  委婉型:I can’t hardly read your hand writing .

  3)几乎否定

  She is barely right .

  I seldom got any sleep last night .

  Few people can understand why he did it .

  (2)真题举例

  There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry .

  •重点词汇解析:methodology,n. 方法论;refer to 参考、涉及、指的是; branch,n. 分支 v. 分支、出现分歧

  (3)参考译文:所谓方法论是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史研究中各个具体领域使用的研究手段,人们对此意见不一。

  6.省略句型结构

  (1)考点概述

  省略结构在考研英语中的考查主要体现在句子的理解层面,主要分为两类:一类是借助于其他词语的省略,如使用助动词代替前文出现过的动词,使用代词代替提到过的名词;另一类直接省略,如略去上下文的重合部分,通常是主语(和/或)谓语。

  (2)要点精析

  省略结构的掌握要求是:

  1)快速识别句子省略的内容;

  2)补全句子省略的内容。常见的省略现象会出现在并列结构中、状语从句中、名词性从句中和定语从句中。

  a.并列结构中的省略

  在并列句中,后面的分句往往省略和上文重合的部分。

  例:I think you’ll win the race; indeed we all think so.

  我认为你一定会赢得这场比赛,事实上我们都这样想。(so=you’ll win the race)

  b.状语从句中的省略

  在when/while/if/asif/

  though(although)/as/

  until/whether等连词引导的状语从句中,若谓语是be,主语是it或与主句的主语相同时,则通常连同be动词一起被省略。

  例:If (it is) necessary, we can give you another chance.

  如果必要的话,我们可以再给你一次机会。

  c.名词性从句中的省略

  常见的是使用不定式在主动表达中省略动词的施动者,在被动表达中省略助动词、情态动词等。

  例:She will go to Beijing, but I don’t know how (she will go to Beijing).

  她将去北京但我不知道她怎么去。

  d.定语从句中的省略

  定语从句中也常使用不定式作为省略的手段;当用as引导非限制性定语从句时,常省略系动词。

  例1:All tests require a potential candidate with whom (the tests) to compare DNA.

  所有的测试都需要一个潜在的对象,从而可以将DNA与其比较。

  例2:He gave the same answer as (he had given) before.

  他给出的答案和以前一样。

  (3)真题举例

  Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change,McNutt said:"The creation of the'statistics board'was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science's overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.”

  •重点词汇及短语:

  impel v. 促使,迫使【用法】impel sb to do sth迫使某人做……

  statistics board 统计板

  concern n. 忧虑,担心;重要的事情 concern about/over/with 对……关心

  application n. 申请书;应用;应用程序

  句子成分分析:本句的主干是...McNutt said...。分词短语Asked whether...the change作句子的状语。引号中的内容是said的宾语,其主干是The creation of the "statistics board" was motivated...and is part of...。句中的broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research解释说明concerns的内容。

  句中的to increase...we publish解释说明drive的内容,其中we publish是一个省略了that的定语从句,修饰research。作“是……还是……”解时,whether表示一种选择,其后可以跟介词短语或不定式短语。

  作“是否,会不会”解时,whether可用来引导名词性从句,即主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。引导主语从句时,可用it作形式主语。引导宾语从句时whether可与if换用。

  (4)参考译文

  当被问道是不是某些特殊的文件推动了这项变化时,麦克纳特回答说:“统计审稿编委会的设立源于对统计学和数据分析在科学研究中运用情况的普遍担忧,也是《科学》杂志为提升我们所发表的研究的可复制性而做出的全面努力的一部分。”

  7.比较句型结构

  (1)理论常识

  比较结构:

  no/not ... other than

  the 比较级……,the 比较级……

  rather ... than ...

  more than / no more than

  less than / no less than

  more A than B / no more A than B

  less A than B / no less A than B

  nothing else than

  as much as

  not as ... as ...

  not so much ... as ...

  (2)真题举例

  They may teach very well , and more than earn their salaries , but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment . (2006,50)

  •重点词汇解析:reflection,n. 反射、沉思;involve,n. 涉及、包含

  (3)参考翻译

  他们可能擅长教书,而且不仅仅专注于赚钱,但是这些人大部分对涉及人类道德判断的问题很少或没有进行独立的思考。

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