语法长难句

2020考研英语备考所需语法之【副词】

来源:跨考2019-05-07

  不知不觉进入五月份了,作为2020考研的同学,我们要利用好一切所能利用的资源、政策,尽自己最大努力,实现你的目标。那么,2020考研英语该如何复习的?在考研英语中,一些重点语法考察频率很高,因此各位考生要予以重视。下面小编为大家整理了2020考研英语所需要的基础语法和重点语法,供大家参考!

  【副词】

  副词可修饰动词、形容词、副词、介词短语及整个句子。

  例句: Andrew, my fathers younger brother, will not be at the picnic, much to the familys disappointment. (1997年第3题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中副词much修饰介词短语to the familys disappointment。

  译文: 我父亲的弟弟安德鲁不会参加野餐,这令全家人非常失望。

  一、副词的分类

  1. 时间副词,如now, yesterday, today, ago, then, lately, soon, shortly, immediately, finally, recently, before, tomorrow。

  例句: Americans today dont place a very high value on intellect. (选自2004年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 现在美国人不重视智力。

  2. 地点副词,如here, there, above, below, downstairs, upstairs, home, somewhere, everywhere, elsewhere, down, up, anywhere等。

  例句: Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. (选自2002年Text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,两个which引导的定语从句分别修饰an example和a story,前一个 which引导的定语从句为非限制性定语从句,起补充说明作用。

  译文: 比如说,在一次护士大会上,我听到了一个能很好地发挥幽默效果的故事,因为所有的听众都对医生持有相同的看法。

  3. 程度副词,如fairly, rather, very, almost, too, quite, enough, so, much。

  例句: She had clearly no intention of doing any work, although she was very well paid.(1997年第34题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,although后面跟的是让步状语从句。

  译文: 虽然付给她的报酬丰厚,但她无意去工作。

  4. 频率副词,如sometimes, often, usually, always, frequently, constantly, rarely, seldom, never, occasionally。

  例句: In addition, the designer must usually select furniture or design builtin furniture, according to the functions that need to be served.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中builtin意为“内嵌式的”。在方式状语中,that need to be served为定语从句,修饰the functions。

  译文: 此外,根据需要满足的功能,设计者通常必须选择家具或设计内嵌式家具。

  5.方式副词,表示动作发生或进行的方式,如quickly,fast,slowly,suddenly,carefully, well, properly, roughly, angrily, rudely。

  例句: You would be shocked if the inside of your bedroom were suddenly changed to look like the inside of a restaurant.

  分析: 该句是复合句,if引导的从句表示与现在相反的虚拟语气。

  译文: 如果你的卧室内部突然变得和饭店内部一样,你可能会大吃一惊。

  6.疑问副词,如when, where, how, why, who。

  例句: So where are the headlines warning of gloom and doom this time? (选自2002年Text 3)

  分析: 该句是特殊疑问句。动词warn的ing形式作headlines的后置定语,表示一种主动关系。

  译文: 那么这次警告人们经济萧条到来的头版新闻又在哪儿呢?

  7.关系副词,如when,where,why。

  例句: Yet it is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could recreate the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago in the U.S., when the Standard Oil Trust was broken up.

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句是it is hard to imagine...。其中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是to imagine that...to competition; that were feared nearly a century ago in the U. S.是定语从句修饰the same threats; when the Standard Oil Trust was broken up是非限制定语从句修饰a century ago。

  译文: 然而,目前几家石油公司的合并是否再次给竞争带来威胁难以预料。因为美国一个世纪前曾由于合并引发了一场竞争危机,造成了标准石油托拉斯的解体。

  8.连接副词,如therefore, then, however, otherwise, hence, so, moreover, yet, consequently, besides, nevertheless, when, where, why, how。

  例句: It is generally recognized, however, that the introduction of the computer in the early 20th century, followed by the invention of the integrated circuit during the 1960s, radically changed the process, although its impact on the media was not immediately apparent. (选自2002年Use of English)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中it是形式主语,真正的主语是that the introduction of the computer in the early 20th century。 followed by the invention of the integrated circuit during the 1960s作定语修饰the introduction。 although its impact on the media...是一个让步状语从句。

  译文: 然而,人们普遍认为,20世纪初出现的计算机以及随后在20世纪60年代发明的集成电路尽管对传媒的影响没有立即显现出来,但却彻底改变了发展进程。

  9.否定副词,如rarely,seldom,hardly,scarcely,never。

  例句:The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonnaandchild image on newsstands this week. (选自2011年Text 4)

  分析:该句是简单句。其中,分词短语showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby和 holding a cute baby分别作后置定语,修饰cover和mother。

  译文:展现“魅力妈妈怀抱可爱宝宝”的杂志封面并非本周报摊上唯一对“圣母与圣子”形象的描述。

  例句: Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients—notably, protein—to feed expanding tissues. (选自2008年Text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是Growth demands calories and nutrients to feed expanding tissues。which rarely continues beyond the age of 20是修饰主语growth的非限制性定语从句。后面的破折号起补充说明作用。

  译文: 20岁后很少有人再继续长高,长高需要热量和营养,特别是蛋白质,以满足身体组织生长的需求。

  二、副词的位置

  1.修饰形容词、副词,副词常置于它们之前(enough除外)。

  例句: The mechanisms at work are manifest in the tendency for such physical activity to utilize the potentially harmful constituents of the stress response. (2000年第14题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中不定式to utilize the potentially harmful constituents of the stress response作状语表示目的。

  译文: 在此起作用的机制显然有此倾向,即这种身体活动会利用应激反应中的潜在有害因素。

  例句: The newlybuilt Science Building seems substantial enough to last a hundred.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中副词enough作定语修饰形容词substantial。

  译文: 新建的科学大楼看上去很坚固,一百年也坏不了。

  2.修饰实义动词时,副词常置于该动词后或该动词宾语后面。

  例句: The solution works only for couples who are selfemployed, dont have small children and get along well enough to spend most of their time together. (1999年第8题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分为the solution works only for couples, 而who are self employed,...是修饰couples的定语从句。

  译文: 这一解决办法只适用于那些自谋职业、没有小孩子而且大部分时间待在一起和睦相处的夫妻。

  3.频率副词和否定副词一般取中间位置,置于实义动词之前、系动词be或第一个助动词之后。

  例句: As for the influence of computerization, nowhere have we seen the results more clearly than in the US, which really have surprised us all.

  分析: 该句是复合句,which really have surprised us all是一个非限制性定语从句修饰the results,主句中nowhere置于句首引起倒装。

  译文: 就计算机化的影响而言,其结果在美国比在其他任何地方都明显,这真使我们惊奇不已。

  例句: Naturally he will try to borrow money at a low rate of interest, but loans of this kind are not frequently obtainable. (选自2000年Cloze Test)

  分析: 该句是一个由but连接的并列句。

  译文: 他自然会努力去获取低息贷款,但这种贷款并不是经常能贷到的。

  4.有些副词修饰整个句子,常置于句前,并用逗号与句子的其他成分隔开。

  例句: Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person. (2007年第46题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,句子的主干部分是legal learning has been viewed as...rather than...。

  译文: 长久以来,法律知识在这类学校里一直被视为律师们所专有的,而不是一个受教育者的知识素养的必要组成部分。

  例句: Instead, the new habits we deliberately press into ourselves create parallel pathways that can bypass those old roads. (选自2009年Text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是the new habits create parallel pathways。we deliberately press into ourselves是省略了关系代词的定语从句,修饰主语the new habits。短语press into的意思是“逼迫,挤入”。另一定语从句that can bypass those old roads修饰主句的宾语parallel pathways,that作从句的主语。

  译文: 相反,我们有意培养的新习惯会形成平行的路径以避开那些原有习惯的轨道。

  5.几个副词连在一起,顺序一般为方式副词+地点副词+时间副词(或把时间副词置于句首)。

  例句: Jane lived isolatedly方式in the town地点for ten years.时间

  6.疑问副词常置于句首。

  例句: Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? (选自2001年Text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,what引导的宾语从句作distrust的宾语。

  译文: 为什么那么多的美国人不相信自己在报刊上看到的东西呢?

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