语法长难句

【考研名师辅导】三步搞定英语长难句

来源:跨考2019-05-16

  阅读翻译的两座大山,第一座是单词;单词终于储备地差不多了,而当单词成串组成了句子,又拎不清了。所以第二个绕不过去的大山即语法。尤其是那些阅读理解或者翻译中的长难句(又臭又硬) ,同学们一见到就头皮发麻,想绕着走,可是我们看下面一道考研例题,看你还能不能绕过去。

  In the last half of the nineteenth century “capital” and “labour” were enlarging and perfecting their rival organizations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and state-owned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting, trams and other services to the taxpayers.

  59. It’s true of the old family firms that______.

  [A] they were spoiled by the younger generations

  [B] they failed for lack of individual initiative

  [C] they lacked efficiency compared with modern companies

  [D] they could supply adequate services to the taxpayers

  解析:本题是一道细节题,由题干定位到文中划线句子,大家看到划线句第二局是一个长难句,你如果没能很好理解这里的修饰关系的话,就会很容易勿选A。解释一下:the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. 此处that 引导定语从句修饰的是decline in efficiency,所以从句的主语也是它,效率的下滑破坏了家族企业的财富,这件事发生在第二代或第三代管理者手中。所以不是由他们这些人破坏的。做考研阅读不要推理,所以本题的正确答案是C。

  我们看到长难句搞不定,就会影响阅读的分数,那到底改如何破解它呢?

  今天孟老师就要告诉大家 最有效的方法就是:去除修饰,化繁为简,破解长难句

  英语中无论多么长的句子都是由“主干部分+修饰成分”组成的(参考文章:手把手教你破解英语长难句 )。 我们首先把句子修饰成分标识出来,找出主干,再进行组合翻译。

  第一步:做标记(介词短语,非谓语和从句下划直线,形容词副词下划波浪线,并列用括号)

  Fortunately, however, the increasing( power and organization) of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. (the managers 是作为meet 的宾语,属于to meet 结构中)

  第二步:确定主干,明白大意

  谓语动词enabled,它前面的核心名词power and organization为主语,它后面的the workman 即为宾语

  主干结构:power and organization enabled the workmen to meet the managers(主谓宾宾补)

  第三步:组合翻译

  ① 主干结构的翻译:顺序翻译,power and organization enabled the workmen to meet the managers:力量和组织使得工人可以与经理们对话。

  ② 修饰结构的翻译: 形容词,介词短语以及简单的定语从句要放在所修饰的名词前,如of the trade unions放在power and organization前;

  who employed them放在修饰的companies前

  ③ 组合翻译:符合中文表达习惯可以适当微调语序和选取词义

  参考翻译:然而幸运的是,工会组织力量日益强大,至少在所有技术行业是这样,工人和公司的经理们可以平等对话。

  (本文为跨考教育教研室孟巍巍老师原创,转载请注明出处。)

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