语法长难句

考研英语定语从句中that和which的区别有哪些?

来源:跨考2019-05-29

  暑期将至,英语复习一直是考研路上的一道难以跨越的砍,那么,2020考研英语该如何复习?在考研英语中,一些重点语法考察频率很高,因此各位考生要予以重视。that与which两者都可指物,常可互换。其区别主要在于它们在定语从句中的用法。下面帮大家总结一下关于which和that在定语从句中的区别,希望能对大家有所帮助。

  (一)只能使用which的情况:

  1. 引导非限制性定语从句时,通常要用which。

  如:She received a bunch of roses from her boyfriend, which came as a surprise. 她收到了男朋友的一束玫瑰花,这是她意想不到的。

  She has to work on Sundays, which she doesn’t like. 她得在星期天工作,她是不喜欢这样的。

  The Guangzhou team, which played so well last season, has done badly this season. 广州队上一个季度打得很好,这个季度却打得很差。

  2. 直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常要用which。

  如:The tool with which he is working is called a plier. 他干活用的那个工具叫做钳子。

  Mary may be late, in which case we ought to wait for her. 玛丽可能晚到,那样我们就要等等她。

  The news report for which they were searching have been recovered. 他们找寻的新闻报道已找到了。

  This morning some French wine came, for which I have to thank you. 今天早上送来一些法国红酒,为此我得向你道谢。

  (二)只能使用that的情况:

  1. 当先行词是下列不定代词或被它们修饰时,比如much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等时,通常用that。

  如:There was little that the enemy could do but surrender. 敌人无法,只有投降了。

  You should hand in all that you have. 你应该把你所有的都交上来。

  Do you have everything that you need? 你需要的东西都有了吗?

  She would never do anything that was not approved of by her parents. 她父母不赞同的事她绝不会做。

  2. 当先行词有the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用that。

  如:This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。

  The only thing that we can do is to give you some money. 我们唯一能做的就是给你一些钱。

  You are the very person that I am looking for. 原来你就是我要找的那个人。

  3. 当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next等)等修饰时,通常用that。

  如:This is the best dictionary that I’ve ever used. 这是我用过的最好的词典。

  He is the last person that I want to see. 他是我最不愿意见到的人。

  The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。

  4. 当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that。

  如:South Africa is not the country (that) it was. 南非已不是过去的南非了。

  5. 当先行词又有人又有物时,即当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that。

  如:They talked about the persons and things that most impressed them. 他们谈论了使他们印象最深的人和事。

  I won’t forget the things and the persons that I saw. 我不会忘记我看到的人和事。

  6. 当要避免重复时,即主句是以which或who开头的特殊疑问句时,通常用that。

  如:Which is the course that we are to take? 我们选哪门课程?

  Which is the bike that you lost? 你丢失的自行车是哪辆?

  Who is the woman that was praised at the meeting? 会上受到表扬的那位妇女是谁?

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