语法长难句

2020考研英语语法难点归纳:【代词及其指代一致】

来源:跨考2019-07-04

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  七月已来,在考研英语中,一些重点语法考察频率很高,因此各位考生要予以重视。语法是英语学习的基础。下面是小编整理的2020考研英语语法难点归纳,希望可以对同学们在复习语法时能有所帮助,希望对2020考研的你带来帮助!

  (三)代词及其指代一致

  一.代词的指代

  1.that的指代作用

  that指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结构中的that of。如

  Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.这里that指代前面的the role。

  No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

  2.one的指代作用

  one指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为ones。the one指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。如:

  A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.

  [A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this

  答案为[C]

  3.do的替代作用。

  do代替动词,注意数和时态的变化。如:

  For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe that it does.

  二.代词指代一致问题

  代词指代一致是指指代的名词在性、数、格上是否一致,或者所照应的名词词组在某些方面保持一致。

  Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease form its effect.

  这里he指代前面的person。

  It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.

  这里its指代前面的两人的friendship。

  Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me.

  这里me必须用宾格形式。

  代词指代一致必须注意以下几个原则和规律:

  1.邻近和靠近原则

  由either … or, neither…nor, not only…but (also)连接先行词时候,如果两个先行词在数和性上保持一致,就用其相应的一直的人称代词;如果两个先行词在数或性上不一致,人称代词一般与邻近的先行词在数和性上保持一致。

  Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her.

  Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination

  If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink

  2.当no one, everyone, each,everybody, none ,anybody, someone, somebody用作主语或主语的限定词时候,或者anything, nothing, something everything等不定代词作主语时候,其相应的代词一般按照语法一致原则,采取单数形式。如:

  Everybody talked at the top of his voice.

  None of the boys can do it , can he?

  Everything is ready, isn’t it?

  3.当主语为复数形式,后跟each作同位语时,如果each位于动词之前,其后的代词或相应的限定词用复数形式;如果 each位于动词之后,其后的代词或相应的限定词用单数形式。如:

  They each have two coats

  we are each responsible for his own family

  4.由and连接两个先行词,代词用复数

  如:the tourist and businessmen lost their luggage in the accident

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