Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends—and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing: A child who claims responsibility for knocking over a tower and tries to rebuild it is engaging in behavior that’s not only reparative but also prosocial.
In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It evokes Freud’s ideas and religious hang-ups. More important, guilt is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Who would inflict it upon a child? Yet this understanding is outdated. “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,” Vaish says, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness (think mania) can be destructive.
And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to atone for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.
Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychology professor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy (and its close cousin empathy) may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.
In a 2014 study, for example, Malti and a colleague looked at 244 children, ages 4, 8, and 12. Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, they rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions (like guilt and sadness) after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed stickers and chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones shared more, even though they hadn’t magically become more sympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.
“That’s good news,” Malti says. “We can be prosocial because of our empathetic proclivity, or because we caused harm and we feel regret.”
21. Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help__________.
A. regulate a child’s basic emotions
B. improve a child’s intellectual ability
C. intensify a child’s positive feelings
D. foster a child’s moral development
22. According to Paragraph 2, many people still guilt to be _________.
A. deceptive B. addictive C. burdensome D. inexcusable
23. Vaish holds that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that________.
A. an emotion can play opposing roles
B. emotions are socially constructive
C. emotional stability can benefit health
D. emotions are context -independent
24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing_______.
A. may help correct emotional deficiencies
B. can bring about emotional satisfaction
C. can result from either sympathy or guilt
D. may be the outcome of impulsive acts
25. The word “transgressions” (line4 para5) is closest in meaning to________.
21. 答案【A】foster a child’smoral development
解析：本题目为因果关系题，考察因果关系对应关系。根据题干关键词guilt can be a good thing定位到第一段最后一句。因果关系题找到原因定位句，根据最后一句this is why……可得知应该是题点的上一句，即第一段倒数第二句“Children aren't born knowing
how to say “ I am sorry”; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and
friends--and their own consciences.”，这句的意思是孩子不是生来就知道如何说“对不起”，而是随着时间而学习到的，这种说法可以安慰一下他的父母朋友，以及他们自己的道德心(良心)。但是这句话实际是个例子，所以我们可以进一步往前看一句，就是第一段第一句的后半句主句，“guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms.内疚出现的稍晚一点，伴随着孩子对于社会和道德准则的理解的逐渐增多”这句就可以得出答案A，foster a child’s moral development培养了孩子的道德发展是a child’s
growing grasp of social and moral norms这句的同义改写。干扰项B的regulate a child's basic
improve a child's intellectual ability 和D. intensity a child’s positive feelings都为提及。
解析：本题目为具体细节题。根据题干中的many people still consider guilt to be 定位到原文第二段的第一和第二句，原文的in the popular imagination 与题干中的many people still consider是同义转化，紧接着第二句继续说it is deeply uncomfortable-it’s emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket
weighted with stones,意思是内疚感是让人感到非常不舒服的，它是穿着石头那么重的夹克在情感上的对等物，意思就是内疚感让人感到很沉重，有负担，而正确答案D的burdensome正是是原文内容的同义替换。A是不可原谅的， B是欺骗，C是上瘾的，都不符合文意。
23. 答案【B】 an emotion can play opposing roles
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Vaish hold that rethinking about guilt 定位到第二段第四句。她补充道，在某种情况下可能有利的得情绪在另一种情况下是有害的，后面具体例子，嫉妒和愤怒可能演变成提醒我们注意重要的不平等。正确答案B的emotion是原文feelings的同义替换，can play opposing roles是原文的advantageous in one context may be harmful in another 的同义转化。干扰项A的context-independent独立于环境和原文提及不同的环境情绪的作用不同相反，属于正反混淆;选项C的socially constructive 原文并未提及，属于无中生有;选项D的emotional stability can benefit health情绪稳定能够有益健康， 并未提及，是常识性干扰
24. 答案【C】 can result from either sympathy or guilt
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing 定位到第四段第三句。马尔蒂和其他人已经表明，内疚和同情可能代表合作和分享的不同途径。正确答案C的 sympathy 和guilt是文中的原词， result from是原文represent的同义替换，干扰项A可能帮助纠正情绪缺陷，原文是compensate for an emotional deficiency弥补感情上的缺陷，并且原文主语只有内疚感并没有同情，属于偷换概念。属于正反混淆;选项B can bring about emotional satisfaction可以带来情绪的满足感，
原文并未提及，属于无中生有;选项D的 may be the outcome of impulsive acts可能是冲动行为的结果，原文是内疚会抑制他们更坏的冲动，属于偷换概念。
25. 答案【A】 wrongdoings
解析：本题目为猜词题，考察上下文内容。根据题干信息定位到第五段第四句。his or her tendency to feel negative emotions (like guilt and sadness) after moral transgressions. 在道德什么之后感到负面情绪，肯定是道德负面的状态下才会有负面情绪，正确答案A的 wrongdoings是错误，不道德行为。干扰项B discussions讨论，和原文意思不符，道德讨论不成立，C选项 restrictions道德限制，不成立。选项D的 teachings教诲;学说;