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2014考研英语:全真模拟题及答案解析(二)_跨考网
跨考考研2013-03-13
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  2014考研英语:全真模拟题及答案解析(二)

  Section ⅡReading Comprehension Part A Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text1

  We have known for a long time that the organization of any particular society is influenced by the definition of the sexes and the distinction drawn between them. But we have realized only recently that the identity of each sex is not so easy to pin down, and that definitions evolve in accordance with different types of culture known to us, that is, scientific discoveries and ideological revolutions. Our nature is not considered as immutable, either socially or biologically. As we approach the beginning of the 21st century, the substantial progress made in biology and genetics is radically challenging the roles, responsibilities and specific characteristics attributed to each sex, and yet, scarcely twenty years ago, these were thought to be “beyond dispute”。

  We can safely say, with a few minor exceptions, that the definition of the sexes and their respective functions remained unchanged in the West from the beginning of the 19th century to the 1960s. The role distinction, raised in some cases to the status of uncompromising dualism on a strongly hierarchical model, lasted throughout this period, appealing for its justification to nature, religion and customs alleged to have existed since the dawn of time. The woman bore children and took care of the home. The man set out to conquer the world and was responsible for the survival of his family, by satisfying their needs in peacetime and going to war when necessary. The entire world order rested on the divergence of the sexes. Any overlapping or confusion between the roles was seen as a threat to the time-honored order of things. It was felt to be against nature, a deviation from the norm. Sex roles were determined according to the “place”appropriate to each. Women's place was, first and foremost, in the home. The outside world, i.e. workshops, factories and business firms, belonged to men. This sex-based division of the world (private and public) gave rise to a strict dichotomy between the attitudes, which conferred on each its special identity. The woman, sequestered at home, “cared, nurtured and conserved”。 To do this, she had no need to be daring, ambitious, tough or competitive. The man, on the other hand, competing with his fellow men, was caught up every day in the struggle for survival, and hence developed those characteristics which were thought natural in a man. Today, many women go out to work, and their reasons for doing so have changed considerably. Besides the traditional financial incentives, we find ambition and personal fulfillment motivating those in the most favorable circumstances, and the wish to have a social life and to get out of their domestic isolation influencing others. Above all, for all women, work is invariably connected with the desire for independence. (454 words)

  Notes: pin down 把…讲明确;确定。immutable不可改变的。dualism双重论。divergence分歧,偏离。overlapping部分巧合、一致。time-honored 由来已久的。dichotomy 一分为二,对立。sequester使隔离。be caught up in 被缠住于,如:He is caught up in the trivia (琐事) of everyday things. unduly过度地,不恰当地。

  21. It is only in recent years that we have recognized that

  [A]there is almost no clue to the identity of both sexes.

  [B]the role distinction between different sexes is conspicuous.

  [C]the different definitions of sexes bears on the development of culture.

  [D]the progress of civilization greatly influences the role definitions of sexes.

  22. From paragraph 1 we can infer that it is now possible for women to embark on a career because

  [A]the change in sex roles is out of the question.

  [B]women's lib has been going on for many years.

  [C]ideas about the roles of women have been changing.

  [D]the expansion of sciences scarcely remolds the women's roles.

  23. The author believes that sex discrimination in the West before the 1960s was

  [A]preferable.

  [B]prevalent.

  [C]presumable.

  [D]precedent.

  24. According to the fourth paragraph, the author seems to think that

  [A]female passivity is natural.

  [B]men and women are physically identical.

  [C]men are born competitive and aggressive.

  [D]some different sex identity is acquired.

  25. According to the author, which of the following is the most important reason for women to go to work?

  [A]Wish to claim their rights and freedom.

  [B]Ambition and self-fulfillment.

  [C]Financial incentives.

  [D]Desire for a social life.

  Section ⅡReading Comprehension

[page]

  Part A

  21. [答案] [D]the progress of civilization greatly influences the role definitions of sexes.

  [注释] 细节理解题。本题问:直到最近我们才意识到什么?第1段第2句写道:“但是直到最近我们才意识到,每一种性别的本性是很难说清楚的,并且定义是按照我们所知道的不同文化,即科学发现和思想革命,在发展的。”由此可见,[D]“文明的进步对男女性别作用的定义有很大影响”符合上述句意。[A]there is almost no clue to the identity of both sexes(几乎没有线索来确定两种性别的本性)属概念偷换,故应排除。[B]the role distinction between different sexes is conspicuous(不同性别所承担的工作差别是显而易见的)属正反颠倒,故不能入选。[C]the different definitions of sexes bears on the development of culture(性别的不同定义对文化的发展产生影响)属前后颠倒,故不能入选。

  注意:pin down确定;清楚说明。

  22. [答案] [C]ideas about the roles of women have been changing.

  [注释] 推理判断题。本题问:从第一段可以推理,为什么现在妇女可以从事一种职业?第1段最后两句写道:“不能认为我们的本性在社会的或生理的方面来看是不可改变的。随着我们接近21世纪初,生物学和遗传学方面所取得的巨大进步正在从根本上对属于每一种性别的角色、职责和特征提出挑战,可是在不到20年以前,上述观点还被认为是‘无可争辩的。”由此推理,现在妇女可以从事一种职业,因为有关妇女角色的观念一直在改变。故应选[C]。 [A]the change in sex roles is out of the question(性别角色的改变是不可能的)具有较强的干扰性。out of the question意为“不可能的”。有的考生之所以选[A]是因为把out of the question错误地理解为“毫无疑问的”。 [D]the expansion of sciences scarcely remolds the women‘s roles(科学的发展几乎没有改变妇女的角色)属正反颠倒,故不能入选。

  注意:通过词汇手段增强干扰是当前命题的一种趋势。

  23. [答案] [B]prevalent.

  [注释] 细节归纳题。本题问:作者认为,20世纪60年代以前西方的性别歧视状况如何?第2段一开头作者写道:“我们可以有把握地说,除了个别例外,从19世纪初到20世纪60年代,对男女性别的定义和他们各自的作用一直没有变化。”接着,作者对此进行了阐述,最后说,“妇女在家生儿育女。男子外出谋生养家,恪守职责,和平时期,以付家需,战争时期,奔赴疆场。”综上所述,男女并不平等。可见,20世纪60年代以前西方的性别歧视普遍存在。故应选[B]prevalent(普遍存在的;盛行的;流行的)。preferable更可取的;presumable可假设的;precedent先前的;均不合题意。

  24. [答案] [D]some different sex identity is acquired.

  [注释] 推理判断题。本题问:根据第4段,作者似乎还想说明什么?第4段第1句写道:“不同性别所承担的角色是根据适合于每种性别的‘地方所决定的。”作者谈到了男女的不同“place”。接着作者说:“This sex-based division of the world (private and public) gave rise to a strict dichotomy between the attitudes, which conferred on each its special identity.”(这种根据性别对世界[个人的和公共的]的划分产生了两种严格不同的态度,因而赋予每一种性别所特有的特性。)可见,在作者看来,某种不同的性别特性不是天生的,而是后天因划分了“地方”而逐渐形成的。紧接着,作者对其观点做了阐述。因此,[D]“某种不同的性别特性是后天获得的”是作者似乎要说明的。

  注意:文中所说的“地方”实际上是指“工作岗位”。

  25. [答案] [A]Wish to claim their rights and freedom.

  [注释] 细节辨认题。本题问:按照作者的看法,下面哪一项是妇女参加工作的最重要的原因?最后一段最后一句写道:“最重要的,对于所有妇女来说,工作总是和渴望独立有关的。”可见,[A]“希望得到她们的权利和自由”符合上述句意,因为此处权利与自由即为独立之意。



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