A scientist once said: “I have concluded that the earth is being visited by intelligently controlled vehicles from outer space.”
If we take this as a reasonable explanation for UFOs (unidentified flying objects), questions immediately come up.
“Why don’t they get in touch with us, then? Why don’t they land right on the White House lawn and declare themselves?” people asked.
In reply, scientists say that, while this may be what we want, it may not necessarily be what they want.
“The most likely explanation, it seems to me,” said Dr. Mead, “is that they are simply watching what we are up to -- that responsible society outside our solar system is keeping an eye on us to see that we don’t set in motion a chain reaction that might have unexpected effects for outside our solar system.”
Opinions from other scientists might go like this: “Why should they want to get in touch with us? We may feel we’re more important than we really are! They may want to observe us only and not interfere with the development of our civilization. They may not care if we see them but they also may not care to say ‘hello’.”
Some scientists have also suggested that Earth is a kind of zoo or wildlife reserve. Just as we set aside wilderness areas and wildlife reserves to allow animals and growing things to develop naturally while we observe them, so perhaps Earth was set aside ages ago for the same purpose.
Are we being observed by intelligent beings from other civilizations in the universe? Are they watching our progress in space travel? Do we live in a gigantic “zoo” observed by our “keepers,” but having no communication with them?
Never before in our history have we had to confront ideas like these. The simple fact is that we, who have always regarded ourselves as supreme in the universe, may not be so. Now we have to recognize that, among the stars in the heavens, there may very well be worlds inhabited by beings who are to us as we are to ants.
16. People who ask the question “Why don’t they get in touch with us... and declare themselves?” think that ________.
[A] there are no such things as UFOs
[B] UFOs are visitors from solar system
[C] there’s no reason for UFOs sooner or later(A)
[D] we are bound to see UFOs sooner or later
17. According to Dr. Mead, the attitude of beings from outer space toward us is one of ________.
18. The tone of the writer is that of ________.
The use of the motor is becoming more and more widespread in the twentieth century; as an increasing number of countries develop both technically and economically, so a larger proportion of the world’s population is able to buy and use a car. Possessing a car gives a much greater degree of mobility, enabling the driver to move around freely. The owner of a car is no longer forced to rely on public transport and is, therefore, not compelled to work locally. He can choose from different jobs and probably changes his work more frequently as he is not restricted to a choice within a small radius. Travelling to work by car is also more comfortable than having to use public transport; the driver can adjust the heating in winter and the air conditioning in the summer to suit his own needs and preference. There is no irritation caused by waiting for trains, buses or underground trains, standing in long patient queues, or sitting on windy platforms, for as long as half an hour sometimes. With the building of good, fast motorways long distances can be covered rapidly and pleasantly. For the first time in this century also, many people are now able to enjoy their leisure time to the full by making trips to the country or seaside at the weekends, instead of being confined to their immediate neighbourhood. This feeling of independence, and the freedom to go where you please, is perhaps the greatest advantage of the car.
When considering the drawbacks, perhaps pollution is of prime importance. As more and more cars are produced and used, so the emission from their exhaust-pipes contains an ever larger volume of poisonous gas. Some of the contents of this gas, such as lead, not only pollute the atmosphere but cause actual harm to the health of people. Many of the minor illnesses of modern industrial society, headaches, tiredness, and stomach upsets are thought to arise from breathing polluted air; doctors’ surgeries are full of people suffering from illnesses caused by pollution. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to deal with the problem of traffic in towns; most of the important cities of the world suffer from traffic congestion. In fact any advantage gained in comfort is often cancelled out in city driving by the frustration caused by traffic jams: endless queues of cars crawling one after another through all the main streets. As an increasing number of traffic regulation schemes are devised, the poor bewildered driver finds himself diverted and forced into one-way systems which cause even greater delays than the traffic jams they are supposed to prevent. The mounting cost of petrol and the increased license fees and road tax all add to the driver’s worries. In fact, he must sometimes wonder if the motor car is such a blessing and not just a menace.
19. More and more people can afford to buy and use cars because ________.
[A] an increasing number of cars are being produced
[B] the cost of cars is getting cheaper with the development of technology
[C] lots of countries have become more developed(C)
[D] the use of cars has proved to be more economical
20. The advantages of having a car are best experienced in the driver’s ________.
[A] freedom in choosing his job
[B] comfort during the travels
[C] enjoyment of his leisure time(D)
[D] feeling of self-reliance
21. What is considered by the writer as the greatest menace to the people caused by the widespread use of motor cars?
[A] air pollution
[B] traffic jams
[C] fatal diseases(A)
[D] high cost
Manners nowadays in metropolitan cities like London are practically non-existent. It is nothing for a big, strong schoolboy to elbow an elderly woman aside in the dash for the last remaining seat on the tube or bus, much less stand up and offer his seat to her, as he ought. In fact, it is saddening to note that if a man does offer his seat to an older woman, it is nearly always a Continental man or one from the older generation.
This question of giving up seats in public transport is much argued about by young men, who say that, since women have claimed equality, they no longer deserve to be treated with courtesy and that those who go out to work should take their turn in the rat race like anyone else. Women have never claimed to be physically as strong as men. Even if it is not agreed, however, that young men should stand up for younger women, the fact remains that courtesy should be shown to the old, the sick and the burdened. Are we really so lost to all ideals of unselfishness that we can sit there indifferently reading the paper or a book, saying to ourselves “First come, first served,” while a grey-haired woman, a mother with a young child or a cripple stands? Yet this is all too often seen.
Conditions in travel are really very hard on everyone, we know, but hardship is surely no excuse. Sometimes one wonders what would have been the behaviour of these stout young men in a packed refugee train or a train on its way to a prison-camp during the War. Would they have considered it only right and their proper due to keep the best places for themselves then?
Older people, tired and irritable from a day’s work, are not angels, either -- far from it. Many a brisk argument or an insulting quarrel breaks out as the weary queues push and shove each other to get on buses and tubes. One cannot commend this, of course, but one does feel there is just a little more excuse.
If cities are to remain pleasant places to live in at all, however, it seems imperative, not only that communications in transport should be improved, but also that communication between human beings should be kept smooth and polite. All over cities, it seems that people are too tired and too rushed to be polite. Shop assistants won’t bother to assist, taxi drivers growl at each other as they dash dangerously round corners, bus conductor pull the bell before their desperate passengers have had time to get on or off the bus, and so on and so on. It seems to us that it is up to the young and strong to do their small part to stop such deterioration.
22. From what you have read, would you expect manners to improve among people ________?
[A] who are physically weak or crippled
[B] who once lived in a prison-camp during the War
[C] who live in big modern cities(C)
[D] who live only in metropolitan cities
23. What is the writer’s opinion concerning courteous manners towards women?
[A] Now that women have claimed equality, they no longer need to be treated differently from men.
[B] It is generally considered old-fashioned for young men to give up their seats to young women.
[C] “Lady First” should be universally practiced.(D)
[D] Special consideration ought to be shown them.
24. According to the author communication between human beings would be smoother if ________.
[A] people were more considerate towards each other
[B] people were not so tired and irritable
[C] women were treated with more courtesy(A)
[D] public transport could be improved
25. What is the possible meaning of the word “deterioration” in the last paragraph?
[A] worsening of general situation
[B] lowering of moral standards
[C] declining of physical constitution(B)
[D] spreading of evil conduct
16. [A]17. [B]18. [D]19. [C]20. [D]
21. [A]22. [C]23. [D]24. [A]25. [B]