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2014考研英语:阅读理解高分强化训练(一)_跨考网
跨考考研2013-03-15
来源跨考网整理
跨考考研

  2014考研英语:阅读理解高分强化训练(一)

  Medical Science and Health

  医学与健康

  Text

  Something about the treatment of Diabetes

  One recent study that was published in the January 2004 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, found that just 12 percent of people with diabetes have met the doctors' recommended guidelines for blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure levels. Those people, failing to meet these goals, are at an extremely high risk for heart disease, which is the leading cause of death for people with diabetes.

  According to data released at the American Diabetes Association's (ADA's) 64th Annual Scientific Sessions in June, most diabetes specialists worldwide do not regard diabetes as a "coronary equivalent". That is, they don't treat problems such as high cholesterol as aggressively in people who have diabetes as they do in people who have heart disease, even though people who have diabetes are as much at risk for a coronary event as someone without diabetes who has already had a heart attack.

  Other studies show that doctors fail to treat high blood pressure aggressively enough in people who have diabetes, and that nearly half of all people with diabetes who are treated for high blood pressure cannot succeed in keeping their blood pressure levels "at goal". More than 70 percent of all people with diabetes have high blood pressure, though many of them do not even know it.

  What makes this more complex is the reality that many other obstacles hold people from keeping their own blood pressure, lipids and blood glucose levels in check. These problems might include the patient's failure to stick to a treatment plan, a lack of social support and the fact that many people who have diabetes face various disease conditions that can become overwhelming.

  Because diabetes is such a complex disease, it is often difficult for people to see how to take a few simple steps to vastly improve their health. That's why the American Diabetes Association has developed a new tool, known as Diabetes Personal Health Decisions (Diabetes PHD), which can immediately show people the specific benefits they would achieve by losing a specific number of pounds, or by lowering blood glucose, cholesterol or blood pressure levels by varying amounts.

  This tool allows people who have diabetes-and even those who are at risk for developing it-to enter personal health information such as age, sex, height, race, weight, family history, medications and a variety of blood values onto a Web site. The program then gives back an accurate risk profile that spells out what that person can do to lower his or her risks by changing specific health parameters such as weight, blood pressure or cholesterol. People will have free access to the Diabetes PHD on the ADA's Web site later this year.

  But retrieving a report from Diabetes PHD is only the first step. The information provided can help emphasize the benefits of different health and lifestyle changes, but it is up to health care providers and the people they treat to follow through on Diabetes PHD data with action.

  Diabetes is a serious and life-threatening disease, but it is one that we know how to treat, how to delay or prevent it. And that's a goal worth working towards in the future.

[page]

  1. According to one recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, what is the percentage of those people with diabetes who have not met recommended guidelines for blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure levels? ______

  [A] 70%

  [B] 30%

  [C] 12%

  [D] 88%

  2. According to the passage, doctors have not been active enough in treating ____of the patients with diabetes.

  [A] their heart disease

  [B] their high cholesterol

  [C] their high blood pressure

  [D] both B and C

  3. In real life, many people can not succeed in keeping their own blood pressure, lipids and blood glucose at healthy levels as a result of many obstacles except____.

  [A] the patients can not stick to a treatment plan

  [B] there is a lack of family support

  [C] the patients have to face many other disease conditions

  [D] the society does not give enough support

  4. By developing Diabetes PHD, the American Diabetes Association aims at ______.

  [A] helping the people with diabetes in analyzing their physical conditions

  [B] offering people some accurate health parameters

  [C] helping emphasize the importance and benefits of different health and lifestyle changes

  [D] directing doctors in their treatment of the diabetes

  5. The author's attitude towards the present treatment of diabetes is ______.

  [A] critical

  [B] objective

  [C] positive

  [D] optimistic

[page]

  答案与题解

  1. [D]

  文章的第一段说仅仅有12%的糖尿病患者的血糖、血脂和血压的指标达到了医生建议的标准,换算一下,没达到标准的应该是88%。

  2. [D]

  文章的二、三段对词此进行了详细的交代,第二段指出,医生们没有像对待心脏病患者那样、积极治疗糖尿病患者的高胆固醇;第三段第一句话就指出了医生没有对糖尿病患者的高血压进行积极的治疗。

  3. [B]

  文章第四段说到妨碍人们控制血压、血脂和血糖的一些障碍,包括不能按照方案坚持治疗、缺乏社会的支持、要面对合并多种疾病的事实,但没有提到家庭支持。

  4. [C]

  从文章的第五段到第七段一直在说开发"糖尿病PHD"的目的,选项[A]和[B]讲的是这一工具的功能,[D]不符合文意,只有[C]是说的研发糖尿病的目的。在文中这一目的在五、六、七段均提到了。

  5. [B]

  文章的第二和第三段指出了糖尿病治疗过程中的一些不足,如对高胆固醇和高血压没有给予积极的治疗,但在文章的最后一段也肯定了目前医学在治疗糖尿病方面作出的贡献,如总结了一些治疗方法,知道如何预防和延缓它,所以说作者的态度是客观的。

  Words

  1. glucose  葡萄糖

  2. lipid  脂质, 油脂

  3. coronary  冠心病的,冠状动脉的

  4. cholesterol  胆固醇

  5. risk profile  风险预测

  Notes

  1. 第三段的"keeping their blood pressure levels ‘at goal'"是指"将他们的血压控制在合格标准之内"。

  2. 第四段的"What makes this more complex is the reality that many other obstacles hold people from keeping their own blood pressure, lipids and blood glucose levels in check."这句话包含了两个从句,一个是由what引导的主语从句,另外一个是由 that引导的同位语从句,先行词是reality.

  3. 第四段的"...who have diabetes face various disease conditions that can become overwhelming." 中的"that can become overwhelming"是个定语从句,先行词是disease conditions,而其中又包含了一个以conditions为先行词,由that引导的定语从句。

  4. 第六段的spell out意思使"清楚地说明"。

  5. 第七段的"..., but it is up to health care providers and the people they treat to follow through on Diabetes PHD data with action."中的up to表示"由......决定,取决于......"。"they treat to follow through on Diabetes PHD data with action"是个定语从句,先行词是people,省去了引导词that。

  课文参考译文

  糖尿病治疗二三事

  2004年1月份《美国医学会杂志》刊登了一项最近的研究报告。报告发现,仅仅12%的糖尿病患者的血糖、血脂和血压的指标达到了医生建议的标准。没有达到这些指标的人患心脏病的风险极高,而心脏病也是糖尿病患者的首要死因。

  在6月份召开的第64届科学年会上,美国糖尿病协会(ADA)发表的数据表明:全世界大部分糖尿病专科医生都没有把糖尿病看作"冠心病等危症"。也就是说,虽然糖尿病患者发生冠脉事件的风险与已有过一次心脏病发作的非糖尿病患者相当,但是,专科医生们未能像对待心脏病患者那样、对糖尿病患者的高胆固醇等情况予以积极治疗。

  另外的一些研究表明,医生们对糖尿病患者的高血压没有给予足够积极的治疗,而接受高血压治疗的全部糖尿病患者几近一半未能将他们的血压保持在"合格标准之内"。在全部糖尿病患者中,患有合并高血压的超过70%,尽管他们中的许多人甚至并不知情。

  使这种情况复杂化的是,现实中还存在许多妨碍人们控制血压、血脂和血糖水平的障碍。这些问题可能包括病人不能坚持按照方案治疗、缺乏社会支持、甚至许多糖尿病患者还要面对难以控制的多种合并疾病的纠缠。

  糖尿病是如此复杂的一种病,人们常常无法得知如何通过几个简单步骤来显著改善健康状况。这就是ADA开发一个新的"工具"--称为"糖尿病个人健康判定程序"(简称 糖尿病PHD)--的原因。该程序能立即告知患者通过减少特定磅数的体重或降低不同数量的血糖、胆固醇或血压,他们就可能获得切实的益处。

  有了这个"工具",糖尿病患者--以及那些有患上糖尿病危险的人--可以把年龄、性别、身高、民族、体重、家族史、药物治疗情况和血液的各种化验值等个人健康信息输入到一个网站上。接着该程序就会反馈一个精确的风险预测,清楚明了地告诉人们如何通过改变体重、血压或胆固醇等特定的健康参数来降低他/她患糖尿病的风险。2004年晚些时候,人们就可以在ADA网站上免费使用"糖尿病PHD"了。

  不过,从"糖尿病PHD"检索一份报告还只是第一步。报告提供的信息可以帮助突出健康状况和生活方式改善的不同程度可以带来的诸多好处,但是,一切还得取决于保健医生们和他们治疗的病人们按照"糖尿病PHD"提供的数据采取了怎样的行动。

  虽然糖尿病是一种严重的和威胁生命的疾病,但我们已经知道如何去治疗它。我们甚至知道如何延缓或预防它。而那也正是一个值得我们为之工作的目标。

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