Everybody loathes it, but everybody does it. A recent poll showed that 40% of Americans hate the practice. It seems so arbitrary, after all. Why does a barman get a tip, but not a doctor who saves lives?
In America alone, tipping is now a $16 billion-a-year industry. Consumers acting rationally ought not to pay more than they have to for a given service. Tips should not exist. So why do they? The conventional wisdom is that tips both reward the efforts of good service and reduce uncomfortable feelings of inequality. The better the service, the bigger the tip.
Such explanations no doubt explain the purported origin of tipping — in the 16th century, boxes in English taverns carried the phrase “To Insure Promptitude” (later just “TIP”). But according to new research from Cornell University, tipping no longer serves any useful function.
The paper analyses data from 2,547 groups dining at 20 different restaurants. The correlation between larger tips and better service was very weak: only a tiny part of the variability in the size of the tip had anything to do with the quality of service. Customers who rated a meal as “excellent” still tipped anywhere between 8% and 37% of the meal price.
Tipping is better explained by culture than by economics. In America, the custom has become institutionalized: it is regarded as part of the accepted cost of a service. In a New York restaurant, failing to tip at least 15% could well mean abuse from the waiter. Hairdressers can expect to get 15-20%, the man who delivers your groceries $2. In Europe, tipping is less common; in many restaurants, discretionary tipping is being replaced by a standard service charge. In many Asian countries, tipping has never really caught on at all.
How to account for these national differences? Look no further than psychology. According to Michael Lynn, the Cornell paper’s co-author, countries in which people are more extrovert, sociable or neurotic tend to tip more. Tipping relieves anxiety about being served by strangers. And, says Mr. Lynn, “in America, where people are outgoing and expressive, tipping is about social approval. If you tip badly, people think less of you. Tipping well is a chance to show off. ” Icelanders, by contrast, do not usually tip— a measure of their introversion, no doubt.
While such explanations may be crude, the hard truth seems to be that tipping does not work. It does not benefit the customer. Nor, in the case of restaurants, does it actually stimulate the waiter, or help the restaurant manager to monitor and assess his staff. Service people should “just be paid a decent wage” which may actually make economic sense. (448 words)
1.Which is true according to the passage?
A.It is regulated that the customers must pay a tip if they want to get good service.
B.There exists the tipping custom in each country.
C.In some countries, tipping has become an industry.
D.More and more people are in favor of tipping.
2.What can we know about the origin of “tip”?
A.It originated from the English inn service.
B.The original purpose of tip was to ensure that waiter could get more money.
C.The waiter threatened the customers with bad service if no tips were given.
D.It originated in a small English village.
3.We can get the information from the article that ____.
A.tipping is very popular in European countries.
B.in Asian countries tipping never existed.
C.tipping is more popular in America than in Europe.
D.tipping is popular in America because the Americans are much richer.
4.People who dine in a New York restaurant _____.
A.are not expected to give any tip to the waiter or waitress.
B.had better tip more than 15% so as not to be shamed.
C.may be looked down upon when offering a considerable tip.
D.are thought of as generous if they tip 15%.
5.The author thinks that ____.
A.tipping can benefit greatly a country’s economic growth.
B.tipping can ensure the quality of service a customer receives.
C.tipping can improve a country’s cultural environment.
D.tipping is not conductive tertiary industry.[page]
2.A，细节题。“小费”这个词的来源是什么?文章在第三段提到了“TIP”这个词的起源。Such explanations no doubt explain the purported origin of tipping — in the 16th century, boxes in English taverns carried the phrase “To Insure Promptitude” (later just “TIP”). 如果不懂 “tavern”是什么意思这个题就不太容易。Tavern的意思是“饭店、旅馆”，与选项A中的 “inn.”是同义词，所以A是正确答案。TIP的意思是保证快速服务，选项B“保证服务生得到更多的钱”显然不对。C 纯属编造。而D说小费起源于英国小村庄，没有根据。
3.C，推断题。仔细阅读第五段，就不难选对答案。选项A(小费在欧洲很流行)错误;选项B(小费在亚洲国家从未存在过)太过极端，不流行并不等于没有存在。而D选项(小费在美国盛行的原因是因为美国人比较富有)，显然不对。选项C(小费在美国比在欧洲流行)原文有这么一句话 “In Europe, tipping is less common;”所以，C是正确答案。
5.D，推断题。作者在最后一段表明了自己的观点： “…tipping does not work. It does not benefit the customer. Nor, in the case of restaurants, does it actually stimulate the waiter, or help the restaurant manager to monitor and assess his staff.”小费根本不起作用，既不利于顾客，也不利于激励服务生，不利于饭店对员工的管理和评估。所以，逐一看完各选项，我们就会发现，D是正确答案—小费对国家的经济不会起到什么促进作用。