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2014考研英语基础阶段:经典习题练习(一)_跨考网
跨考考研2013-03-09
来源跨考网整理
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[page]

  Section Ⅰ Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on Answer Sheet 1. (10 points)

  From childhood to old age, we all use language as a means of broadening our knowledge of ourselves and the world about us. When humans first 1 , they were like newborn children, unable to use this 2 tool. Yet once language developed, the possibilities for human kind's future 3 and cultural growth increased.

  Many linguists believe that evolution is 4 for our ability to produce and use language. They 5 that our highly evolved brain provides us 6 an innate language ability not found in lower 7 . Proponents of this innateness theory say that our 8 for language is inborn, but that language itself develops gradually, 9 a function of the growth of the brain during childhood. Therefore there are critical 10 times for language development.

  Current 11 of innateness theory(天生论) are mixed, however, evidence supporting the existence of some innate abilities is undeniable. 12 , more and more schools are discovering that foreign languages are best taught in 13 grades. Young children often can learn several languages by being 14 to them, while adults have a much harder time learning another language once the 15 of their first language have become firmly fixed.

  16 some aspects of language are undeniably innate, language does not develop automatically in a vacuum. Children who have been 17 from other human beings do not possess language. This demonstrates that 18 with other human beings is necessary for proper language development. Some linguists believe that this is even more basic to human language 19 than any innate capacities. These theorists view language as imitative, learned behavior. 20, children learn language from their parents by imitating them. Parents gradually shape their child's language skills by positively reinforcing precise imitations and negatively reinforcing imprecise ones.

  1. [A] generated [B] evolved [C] born [D] originated

  2. [A] valuable [B] appropriate [C] convenient [D] favorite

  3. [A] attainments [B] feasibility [C] entertainments [D] evolution

  4. [A] essential [B] available [C] reliable [D] responsible

  5. [A] confirm [B] inform [C] claim [D] convince

  6. [A] for [B] from [C] of [D] with

  7. [A] organizations [B] organisms [C] humans [D] children

  8. [A] potential [B] performance [C] preference [D] passion

  9. [A] as [B] just as [C] like [D] unlike

  10. [A] ideological [B] biological [C] social [D] psychological

  11. [A] reviews [B] reference [C] reaction [D] recommendation

  12. [A] In a word [B] In a sense [C] Indeed [D] In other words

  13. [A] various [B] different [C] the higher [D] the lower

  14. [A] revealed [B] exposed [C] engaged [D] involved

  15. [A] regulations [B] formations [C] rules [D] constitutions

  16. [A] Although [B] Whether [C] Since [D] When

  17. [A] distinguished [B] different [C] protected [D] isolated

  18. [A] exposition [B] comparison [C] contrast [D] interaction

  19. [A] acquisition [B] appreciation [C] requirement [D] alternative

  20. [A] As a result [B] After all [C] In other words [D] Above all

  答案精析

  Section Ⅰ Use of English

  1. [答案] B动词辨析。此句的意思为: "当人类刚刚开始进化,他们如同新生儿一样不会运用语言这种工具。"A)generated意为"生殖,发展";B)evolved意为"逐渐发展,进化";C)born (bear的过去分词)不能作谓语动词;D)originated意为"起源",不能用first修饰。因此B正确。

  2. [答案] A形容词辨析。根据上文可知tool指的是语言,语言是人类在进化过程中慢慢发展起来的,对人类来说,应当是珍贵的。故A正确。

  3. [答案] A名词辨析。此句意思是: "然而语言一旦发展就增加了人类未来的成就和文化进步的可能性。"由句意可知A正确。

  4. [答案] D形容词辨析。由空格后的for可知应选D,因为这里只有responsible可与其构成固定短语be responsible for。

  5. [答案] C动词辨析。空格后应是一个宾语从句,而A,B,D三项后都不能接从句做直接宾语:A) confirm(确认)+名词;B) inform(通知)sb. of sth. ;D) convince(使某人确信) sb. of sth.。故C)claim "声称,断言"正确。

  6. [答案] D固定搭配。provide sb. with sth. 意为 "向(人)提供(物)"。故D正确。

  7. [答案] B名词辨析。作者在这里是把人和低等动物相比较,因此选B。organisms意为 "有机体,生物体。"

  8. [答案] A名词辨析。此句意思是: "人类的语言潜在能力是与生俱来的,但语言本身也在逐渐发展。"显然A正确。

  9. [答案] A介词搭配。此句的意思是: "语言本身作为童年时期大脑生长的一种功能,其发展是缓慢的。A)as "作为,当作符合题意。故A正确。

  10. [答案] B形容词辨析。此句意思为: "语言的发展有一个关键的生物期。"故B正确。

  11. [答案] A名词辨析。此句意思为: "目前人们对"先天论"评论观点不一,但是支持某些天生能力的证据却是确凿无疑的。"A)reviews意为"评论";B)reference意为"参考";C)reaction意为"反应";D)recommendation意为"推荐"。显然A正确。

  12. [答案] C从上一句可以看出,作者是倾向于先天论的。作者为此以学校为例加以说明,因此这里应填一个表示递进关系的词Indeed。

  13. [答案] D形容词辨析。从下一句可以判定应该选D。此句的意思是: "越来越多的学校发现低年级学外语较容易些。"

  14. [答案] B动词辨析。B)exposed意为 "使暴露",be exposed to意为"接触到,暴露于"是固定搭配。C和D选项不与to搭配,而A则与句意矛盾。

  15. [答案] C名词辨析。此句意思是: "一旦母语的规则被深深印入脑海中,成年人就很难再学好另一种语言。" A)regulations意为"规定";B)formations意为"构成,构造";C)rules意为"规则,规律";D)constitutions意为"宪法,章程"。故C正确。

  16. [答案] A连词辨析。该句是复合句。从句意思是: "语言的某些方面肯定是先天的。"主句意思是:"语言不会在与人隔绝的状况下自行发展。"显然是转折关系。故A正确。

  17. [答案] D形容词辨析。此句意思为: "与人隔绝的儿童不能掌握好一门语言。" A)distinguished意为"区别的,杰出的";B)different意为"不同的";C)protected意为"受到保护的";D)isolated意为"孤立的,与人隔绝的"。显然D正确。

  18. [答案] D名词辨析。此句的意思为: "必须通过与他人交往,语言才能够发展。"A)exposition意为"暴露";B)comparison意为"比较";C)contrast意为"对比";D)interaction意为"相互作用"。显然D正确。

  19. [答案] A名词辨析。A)acquisition意为 "获得"语言习得;B)appreciation意为"欣赏,感激";C)requirement意为"要求";D)alternative意为"抉择;选择余地"。本句中的"this"和"even more basic"分别指代上句的"interaction with other human beings"和"necessary",此处所填词对应上文中的language development。也就是说,language acquisition语言习得。故A正确。

  20. [答案] C从空格后的句意 "孩子是通过模仿父母来学语言的。"可知本句是以另一种方式解释前文中的imitative, 和learned behavior"模仿性的后天行为"。显然正确答案为C。


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