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2014考研英语:答案解析和参考译文(三)_跨考网
跨考考研2013-03-11
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  2014考研英语:答案解析和参考译文(三)

  Text 2

  Before a big exam, a sound night‘s sleep will do you more good than poring over textbooks. That, at least, is the folk wisdom. And science, in the form of behavioral psychology, supports that wisdom. But such behavioral studies cannot distinguish between two competing theories of why sleep is good for the memory. One says that sleep is when permanent memories form. The other says that they are actually formed during the day, but then“edited”at night, to flush away what is superfluous.

  To tell the difference, it is necessary to look into the brain of a sleeping person, and that is hard. But after a decade of painstaking work, a team led by Pierre Maquet at Liege University in Belgium has managed to do it. The particular stage of sleep in which the Belgian group is interested in is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when brain and body are active, heart rate and blood pressure increase, the eyes move back and forth behind the eyelids as if watching a movie, and brainwave traces resemble those of wakefulness. It is during this period of sleep that people are most likely to relive events of the previous day in dreams.

  Dr. Maquet used an electronic device called PET to study the brains of people as they practiced a task during the day, and as they slept during the following night. The task required them to press a button as fast as possible, in response to a light coming on in one of six positions. As they learnt how to do this, their response times got faster. What they did not know was that the appearance of the lights sometimes followed a pattern—what is referred to as“artificial grammar”。 Yet the reductions in response time showed that they learnt faster when the pattern was present than when there was not.

  What is more, those with more to learn (i.e., the“grammar”, as well as the mechanical task of pushing the button) have more active brains. The“editing”theory would not predict that, since the number of irrelevant stimuli would be the same in each case. And to eliminate any doubts that the experimental subjects were learning as opposed to unlearning, their response times when they woke up were even quicker than when they went to sleep.

  The team, therefore, concluded that the nerve connections involved in memory are reinforced through reactivation during REM sleep, particularly if the brain detects an inherent structure in the material being learnt. So now, on the eve of that crucial test, maths students can sleep soundly in the knowledge that what they will remember the next day are the basic rules of algebra and not the incoherent talk from the radio next door.

[page]

  26.Researchers in behavioral psychology are divided with regard to

  [A] how dreams are modified in their courses.

  [B] the difference between sleep and wakefulness.

  [C] why sleep is of great benefit to memory.

  [D] the functions of a good night‘s sleep.

  27.As manifested in the experimental study, rapid eye movement is characterized by

  [A] intensely active brainwave traces.   [B] subjects‘quicker response times.

  [C] complicated memory patterns.    [D] revival of events in the previous day.

  28.By referring to the artificial grammar, the author intends to show

  [A] its significance in the study.   [B] an inherent pattern being learnt.

  [C] its resemblance to the lights.   [D] the importance of night‘s sleep.

  29.In their study, researchers led by Pierre Maquet took advantage of the technique of

  [A] exposing a long-held folk wisdom.   [B] clarifying the predictions on dreams.

  [C] making contrasts and comparisons.   [D] correlating effects with their causes.

  30.What advice might Maquet give to those who have a crucial test the next day?

  [A] Memorizing grammar with great efforts.

  [B] Study textbooks with close attention.

  [C] Have their brain images recorded.

  [D] Enjoy their sleep at night soundly.

  Text 2

  篇章导读

  本文是一篇关于睡眠方面的研究性的文章。文章第1自然段说好睡眠是相当重要的,而没有必要在考前努力地研读课本,那么关于这种古训毫无疑问是正确的,而人们没有搞清楚的是为什么睡眠对记忆有好处,我们知道它好,却不知道它为什么好。随后作者通过文章第2、3、4、5段的科学实验,进一步澄清说明睡眠的确对于记忆是有好处的。文章的关键词为“sound night‘s sleep”、“science”、“behavioral psychology”、“memory”以及“brainwave”等等。

  思路解析

  26「答案」[C]

  「解析」题干问:“行为心理学的研究者对于什么有不同的观点?”文中第1自然段提到他们对为什么睡眠对记忆有好处持有不同的观点,因此[C]“为什么睡眠对记忆有很大的好处”为正确选项。而选项[A]“梦是如何在其过程中得到改变的”,选项[B]“睡眠和苏醒的区别”和选项[D]“好睡眠的功能”均不是他们分歧的观点。

  27「答案」[A]

  「解析」题干问:“如实验室研究中所表明,快眼运动的特征是……”。正确选项为[A]“急剧活跃的脑电图”,此题可以定位在第2自然段,且在第3、4段又再次说明。选项[B]“被研究者很快的反应速度”,选项[C]“复杂的记忆模式”和选项[D]“前一天事件的重现”都不是快眼运动的主要特征。

  28「答案」[B]

  「解析」题干问:“作者谈到‘人工语法’,目的是为了说明……”。正确选项为[B]“所学到的内在模式”,此题定位于原文的第3段,且在原文的第5段作者以学数学的学生为例说明,如果睡得好,大脑会发现一种内在的某种学习材料的模式。选项[A]“研究的重要性”,选项[C]“和灯泡的相似”和选项[D]“睡眠的重要性”都不是作者说到“人工语法”所要谈论的目的。

  29「答案」[C]

  「解析」题干问:“在研究中皮埃尔·马凯领导的小组主要利用的是什么方法?”正确选项为[C]“采用一种对比和比较的方式”,这个题考察的是对2、3、4、5段的归纳,他们把各种情形的情况进行对比性的研究。选项[A]“揭示一种长期持有的古训”,选项[B]“澄清了对梦的预言”和选项[D]“把因果关系联系在一起”都不是他们所使用的主要方法。

  30「答案」[D]

  「解析」题干问:“马凯给第二天参加大考的人有什么建议?”正确选项为[D]“在晚上好好的睡觉”,这是一个通篇的中心归纳的考察题,在晚上好好的睡觉对记忆是有好处的。而选项[A]“努力地记忆语法”,选项[B]“认真地研究课本”和选项[C]“记录自己的脑呈像”都不是他的明显建议,尽管这些错误的选项使用了原文中的某些表达和单词。

[page]

  参考译文

  大考之前,一夜酣睡要比你研读书本更有益。不管怎样,人们将其视为至理名言。科学(行为心理学)证明了这一名言。关于为何睡眠有助于大脑记忆有两种相对立的说法,但行为科学研究却不能够对其进行区分。一种理论认为,睡眠中形成永久记忆。另一种理论认为,记忆实际上是在白天形成的,只不过是在晚上对它“编辑”,并把多余的删去。

  要对两种理论进行区分,探究人在睡眠过程中大脑的情况是必要的,但又是困难的。经过十年的艰苦工作,比利时列日大学的皮埃尔·马凯领导的小组却做到了这一点。比利时小组尤其感兴趣的睡眠阶段是快速眼动(REM)睡眠。这时,大脑和身体处于活跃状态,心跳加速,血压升高,眼球在眼皮下来回移动,仿佛在欣赏电影,脑电图与清醒时相似。正是这段睡眠时间,白天发生的事才最有可能在梦中出现。

  马凯医生使用一种称为PET的电子设备对白天从事某项任务的人进行研究,并在晚上他们熟睡时进行跟踪研究。这项任务要求他们在看到六个不同位置处的灯光亮时,迅速按下电钮,越快越好。当他们学会如何去做以后,反应速度就加快了。他们不知道灯亮有时是按照一定的模式出现的——这种模式被称作“人造语法”。而反应时间的缩短正说明他们在有模式时比没有模式时学得快。

  而且,要学的东西越多(比如学习“语法”和机械性的按下电钮),大脑就越活跃。“编辑”理论无法对此进行预测,因为在任何情况下,无关刺激的数量都是一样的。试验对象在醒来时的反应时间甚至比睡觉时还快,从而消除了他们在学习,而不是没有学这一疑虑。

  因此,该小组得出结论,在快速眼动(REM)睡眠中,通过再次激活,使与记忆有关的神经连接得到加强。尤其是当大脑注意到所学材料的内在结构时,更是如此。所以,大考前夜,参加第二天数学考试的学生可以酣睡,他们知道明天需要记住的都是些基本的代数法则,而不是隔壁收音机里断断续续的话语。


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