复习指导

2020考研英语:常考短语及句型集锦

来源:跨考2019-10-12

  时间飞逝,2020考研已进入倒计时模式,在接下来的复习中同学们要根据自己的实际情况开展合理高效的复习计划,千万不能够掉以轻心。下面整理了2020考研英语常考短语及句型,供参考!

  1.as 引导的特殊状语丛句,翻译时作定语丛句处理

  例:"In short", a leader of the new school contends , "the scientific revolution ,as we all it,was largely the improvement and invention and use of a instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directinons." [译文] 新学派的一位领袖人物坚持说:“简言之,我们所称之为的科学革命,主要是指一系列器具的改进、发明和使用。这些改进、发明和使用使科学发展的范围无所不及。”

  2.anyting but 根本不;nothing but 只不过是;all but 几乎,差一点;除……以外其余都是;but for 要不是;but +丛句,若不是……

  例1.:Alone in a deserted house , he was so busy with his rescarch work that he felt anything but lonely.[译文]:虽然他孤独一人住在这幢房子里,但他埋头于研究工作,一点也没有感到孤独。

  [注释]:句中 anything but 意为 except。试对比:He seldom talked of anyting butthe experssion of the necessary mode of working of the human mind ; it is simply the mode by all phenomena are reasoned about and given precise and exact explanation.[译文]:科学研究的方法不过是人类思维活的的必要表达方式,也就是对一切现象进行思索并给以精确而严谨的表达方式。

  例3.The party was all but over when we arrived. [译文]:我们到达时,聚会已近尾声。

  [注释]:此句中 all but 意为 nearly , almost。

  例4.But for the rain, we would have had a nice holiday。[译文]:要不是因为下雨,我们的假日一定过得很惬意。

  3.“名词,+or +名词”结构中or后的名词是同位语,应译为“即……;或者称……”

  例:Moreover , technology includes techniques, or ways to do things ,as well as the machines that may or may not be necessary to apply them. [译文]:再者,除机器外技术还包括技艺,即制作方法,而运用这些技艺并不一定都需要机器。

  4.“...,only to +动词”意为“……,结果却……”

  例:They don"t have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre , the cinema or the opera ,only to discover,perhaps, that the show is disappionting .[译文]:他们不必花钱去戏院、电影院或歌剧院买价格很贵的戏票,结果却发现,所演的节目令人失望。

  [注释]:“..., only to +v.”表示句子谓语动作的目的相反结果。

  5. not nearly 永远不

  例:Food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this , which means that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food.[译文]:食品供应将远远赶不上人口的增长,这就意味着我们在粮食的生产和购销方面正面临危机。

  6. not so much ... as ... 与其说……不如说……

  例1.Science moves forward , they say , not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like imporoved techniques and tools. [译文]:他们说,科学的发展与其说源于天才伟人的真知灼见,不如说源于改进了的技术和工具等更为普通的东西。

  例2.The conveniences that Americans desire reflect not so much a leisurely lifestyle as busy lifestyle in which even minutes of time are too valuable to be wasted。 [译文]:美国人所需要的各种便利条件与其说是反映一种从容不迫的生活方式,还不如说反映一种忙碌的生活方式。在这种忙碌的生活方式中甚至几分钟时间都得珍惜。

  [注释]:1) not so much as 连在一起写,则意为“连……都不(肯)”

  如:He didn"t so much as thank me for returning his money that I find .

  我把找到的钱还给他,他却连谢都不肯谢。

  2)该句型有时也用 not so much ... but ...

  如:The important thing is not so much the actual population of the world , but its rate of increase. 重要的与其说是世界的实际人口量,还不如说是人口的增长率。

  3).要注意“not so much ... but ... ”与“not so +形容词+but+丛句”之意的区别,后者意为“虽然……但是……”

  例如:The bridge was not so crowded but the bicycles could go through.这桥上虽然很拥挤,但是自行车还能穿过去。

  7.much less , still less 引导的词组或丛句,表示一种追加的否定,less是由little 的否定意义而来的,所以这两个词组只能用于否定句中,意为“更不必说”。to say nothing of , not to speak of , not to mention , let alone 意为“更不消说”,也是一种追补的说法。但它们与 much less 和 still less 有所不同,这些词组可以随前一句的意思而定。前一句是肯定,则追加的也是肯定意义。如果前一句是否定,则追加的也是否定意义。

  例1.I could not agree to , much less paticipate in such proceedings. [译文]:我不能同意这种行为,更谈不上参加这些行动了。

  例2.He knows little of mathematics , and still less of chemistry.(1991 年考研试题)[译文]:他几乎不懂数学,更不用说化学了。)

  例3. In old China , there was hardly any machine-building industry, to say nothing of an eletronic industry.(1985 年考研试题) [译文]:在旧中国,几乎没有什么机器制作工业,更不用说电子工业了。

  例4.I don"t konw algebra or geomtry , not to mention calculus. [译文]:我连代数几何都不懂,更不必说微积分了。

  例5. I can"t add two and tow , let alone do fraction.[译文]:我2加2都不会,更不用说做分数题了。

  注意:《美国成语词典》认为 let alone 只能用于追加的否定,但是,有的词典认为,该短语也可以引导追加的肯定。例如:There were five people in the car , let alone the luggage and the two dogs .车里已经坐了五个人了,行李和那两条狗就不带走了。

  8. no more ... than ... 和……一样都不……

  例1. The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach , for they are both controlled by the brain.( 1994 年考研试题) [译文]:心脏和胃一样都无智力可言,因为它们都是由大脑控制的。

  例2. There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take , any more than they can limit how much water you drink.( 1993年考研试题) [译文]:他们没有理由限制你服用多少维他命,就像他们不能限制你喝多少水一样。

  9. more ... than ... 与其……不如……

  例1. He is a man who is more brave than wise.[译文]:与其说他是一个勇敢的人,不如说他是一个聪明人。

  [注释]:1). more ... than 常用来比较同一个人或者同一个事物的两种不同特征。又如:He is more mad than stupid.他与其说是笨,不如说是疯。

  2). more than +丛句(句中有 can 或 could ):实在不能……。

  例如:Some of the suggestions are more than we can accept .有些建议我们实在不能接受。

  3). not more +名词+than +句词:与……一样(是)

  如:A big elephant is not more an animal than a little cat is.大象和小猫也一样是动物。

  4). (be) more of a ... than a ... :与其说是……不如说是……,如:He is more of a politican than a scholar.与其说他是个学者,不如说是个政客。

  10. no less than 简直是,实在是

  例1. It is no less than blackmail to ask such a high price.[译文]:如此索要高价,简直是敲诈。

  (注:本文来自网络,如有侵权,请联系删除)

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