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2014考研英语:完型填空专项练习及答案(十)_跨考网
跨考考研2013-03-13
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  2014考研英语:完型填空专项练习及答案(十)

  十、苏美尔人

  All Sumerian cities recognized a number of gods in common,including the sky god,the lord of storms,and the morning and evening star.__1__the Sumerian worshipped the goddess of fertility,love,and war,she was evidently lower__2__status than the male gods,indicating that in a more urbanized society the__3__that the peoples of previous times had paid to the earth mother goddess had__4__. The gods seemed hopelessly violent and __5__,and one‘s life a period of slavery at their easy will. The epic poem The Creation emphasizes that__6__were created to enable the gods to__7__ up working. Each city moreover had its own god,who was considered to__8__ the temple literally and who was in theory the owner of all property within the city.__9__the priests who interpreted the will of the god and controlled the__10__ of the economic produce of the city were favored__11__ their supernatural and material functions __12__. When,after 3,000 B. C.,growing warfare among the cities made military leadership__13__,the head of the army who became king assumed a(n)__14__position between the god,whose agent he was,and the priestly class,whom he had both to use and to __15__. Thus king and priests represented the upper class in a hierarchical society.__16__them were the scribes,the secular attendants of the temple,who__17__every aspect of the city’s economic life and who developed a rough judicial system.__18__the temple officials,society was divided among an elite or__19__ group of large landowners and military leaders;a mixed group of merchants,artisans,and craftsmen,free peasants who__20__ the majority of the population;and slaves.

  1. [A] Unless [B] As [C] Lest [D] Although

  3. [A] worship [B] reverence [C] admiration [D] gratitude

  4. [A] vanished [B] recovered [C] declined [D] attained

  5. [A] unpredictable[B] unforgivable[C] unlimited [D] unlikely

  6. [A] creatures [B] animals [C] men [D] mortals

  7. [A] use [B] turn [C] give [D] back

  8. [A] inhabit [B] live [C] reside [D] lodge

  9. [A] Hence [B] Thereafter [C] Somehow [D] Incidentally

  10. [A] introduction[B] transaction [C] distribution[D] provision

  11. [A] as [B] for [C] under [D] of

  12. [A] along [B] anyway [C] afterwards [D] alike

  13. [A] additional [B] vital [C] singular [D] exceptional

  14. [A] alternative [B] secondary [C] intermediate[D] fundamental

  15. [A] pacify [B] tempt [C] suppress [D] manipulate

  16. [A] Beside [B] Beyond [C] Below [D] Before

  17. [A] supervised [B] held [C] managed [D] presided

  18. [A] Around [B] Under [C] Above [D] Outside

  19. [A] leading [B] noble [C] controlling [D] principal

  20. [A] consist [B] compose [C] compile [D] consume

[page]

  答案1. D 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. D 7.C 8.A 9. A 10. C 11. B 12. D 13.B 14.C 15. A 16. C 17. A 18. D 19. B 20. B

  总体分析本文介绍了苏美尔人对神的崇拜及由此引起的社会阶层的划分。第一句至第四句为一个意群,主要介绍了苏美尔人对神的崇拜,以及神凌驾于人之上。第五句至倒数第二句为一个意群,介绍了由于对神的崇拜而出现的社会上层阶层及其职能。末句附带说明了在宗教体系之外的社会阶层。

  全文翻译所有的苏美尔城邦都认可很多共同的神,包括天空之神、风暴之王、晨星和昏星。虽然苏美尔人崇拜代表繁衍、爱和战争的女神,但她在地位上却明显低于男性神。这表明在一个更趋都市化的社会中,过去时代的民族曾经致以大地母亲神的敬意已经减少。神似乎都极其暴力且捉摸不定,人的一生成为任他们摆布和奴役的一生。史诗《创世记》中强调人类被创造出来是为了使神放弃劳动。而且每一座城邦都有它自己的神,该神被认为确实居住在庙宇里,理论上则是城邦里所有财产的拥有者。因此诠释神的意志并且控制城市经济产品的分配的僧侣以他们超自然的以及在物质方面享有的功能而受到青睐。公元前3000年以后,当城市不断增多的战事使军事领导才能变得非常重要时,成为国王的军队首领占据了在神与僧侣阶层之间的位置,他是神的代言人,对僧侣阶层既利用又安抚。因此在一个等级社会中国王和僧侣代表了上层阶级。居于他们之下的是书吏,即,庙宇世俗的侍臣,他监督城市经济生活的方方面面,并制定粗略的司法体系。在庙宇官员之外,社会被划分为四类人:大地主和军事领导人这样一群精英和贵族人群;商人、工匠和技工的混合群体;占人口大部分的自由农民;奴隶。

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