翻译

2021考研英语翻译答题技巧之:分割结构

来源:跨考2020-07-22

  2021考研二轮复习在马不停蹄地进行中了,今天来给大家说个考研英语复习中的“麻烦事儿”,翻译题型应该是整个复习过程中的一大难点。长句、句式、结构等都需要我们去掌握。下面为大家分享2021考研英语翻译技巧:分割结构。

  【分割结构】

  语法关系密切的两个句子成分被其他句子成分分隔的现象称为分割结构。英语中,分割结构的类型是多种多样的。例如,英语句子的主语和谓语一般都紧密相联,它们之间很少插入介词等比较长的结构。但是,在有些情况下,或是为了保持句子的平衡,避免头重脚轻,或是为了语义严密,结构紧凑,在主语和谓语之间有时也会插入其他成分。此外,还有定语(或定语从句)与其中心词被分隔;某些词语与其所要求的介词被分隔;动词与其宾语被分隔;介词与其宾语被分隔等等。总之,英语的分割应遵循尾重原则(应把长而复杂的成分放在句末,使结构匀称)和句尾信息焦点原则(把新信息,即语意重点放在句末)。同时,在阅读时要注意找出原来属于一个整体部分的意义。

  1. Most novelists and historians writing in the early to mid-twentieth century who considered women in the West, when they considered women at all, fell under Turner’s spell.

  分析:本句的主干结构是:Most novelists and historians…fell under Turner’s spell. Turner 是美国历史学家。under a spell:被迷住,着迷。writing in the early to mid-twentieth century who considered women in the West, when they considered women at all 修饰主语,起分割主谓的作用。而其中的状语从句when they considered women at all 是定语从句who considered women in the West中的状语成分。

  译文:从本世纪初到本世纪中叶从事写作的小说家和历史学家只要描写妇女,就会描述西部妇女,而且都被特纳迷住。

  2. In the last eight years there were difficult, almost non-stop negotiations and reported threats of failure, ultimately overcome by a combination of creative compromise and stubborn determination—indeed, some call it unprecedented determination—to succeed.

  分析:本句的主干结构是:…there were negotiations and…threats of failure。“overcome by…”是过去分词短语,修饰 threats of failure。stubborn determination 和其定语动词不定式“to succeed”被“indeed, some call it unprecedented determination”分割。

  译文:在最后的八年里,进行了艰苦卓绝的、几乎是不间断的谈判,其间屡经失败之虞,但最终通过创造性的协调和要取得成功的顽强决心——确实有人称之为前所未有的决心——而渡过难关,取得了胜利。

  3. Abraham Lincoln is the most famous instance of the claim that Americans often made that in their country a man may rise from the lowest to the highest position.

  分析:the claim 和其同位语 that in their country a man may rise from the lowest to the highest position 被 the claim 的定语从句that Americans often made 分割。同位语从句在翻译时可按照顺序翻译,将其翻译为分句。

  4. The discovery of surplus value suddenly threw light on the problem, in trying to solve which all previous investigations, of both bourgeois economists and social critics, had been groping in the dark.

  分析:in trying to solve插在 the problem 和定语从句which…之间,起到承上启下的作用。of both bourgeois economists and social critics为investigations 的后置定语,起到分割作用。

  译文:由于剩余价值的发现,使问题明朗化了。而先前,无论资产阶级经济学家还是社会批评家所从事的一切研究都只是在黑暗中摸索。

  5. A better knowledge of China’s civilization would lay open to us an empire of learning, hitherto fabulously described.

  分析:lay open 和 an empire of learning 被介词短语 to us 分割。本句选自英国前首相撒切尔夫人1982年在中国欢迎宴会上的讲话。翻译时要注意转译的应用。如把“better”译为副词“更好地”。

  译文:更好地了解中国的文明,将为我们打开一个知识的王国,对这个王国迄今只有神话般的描述。

  6. It is the insistence, as a first consideration, upon the interdependence of the various elements in, and parts of, the United States—a recognition of the old and permanently important manifestation of the American spirit of the pioneer.

  分析:insistence 后接upon the interdependence of the various elements in, and parts of, the United States, 中间被插入语as a first consideration 分割,做进一步说明。该句选自美国前总统罗斯福在1933年的就职演说。汉语中动词用得较多,翻译时可把名词转译为动词。

  7. As they grow old, people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons: lack of physical and mental energy—both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away—and sentiment.

  分析:该句包含了并列结构被分割的情况。lack of physical and mental energy和sentiment 是并列结构,作two other reasons的同位语。但是被非限定性定语从句both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away分割。

  译文:人们随着日趋年迈,积存物品还有其他两个原因:一是缺乏体力和精神,两者在清理和扔掉无用之物时不可或缺,二是感情上的原因。

  8. Those who believe in capital punishment may have arguments for its retention, but surely no reasonable argument can be found for retention of the sickening mumbo-jumbo that accompanies it from the moment that the judge dons the black cap with what looks like a pen-wiper balanced on the top of his wig, to the reading of the burial service over the condemned man before he is dead.

  分析:这是一个由but引导的并列句。前一分句较简单,who引导的从句作those 的定语,but 后的从句较复杂,从句套从句,for retention…dead是argument的定语。因为它比较长,所以把谓语动词can be found放在它和argument之间,形成分割结构。该句较长,可以分为三层:第一层是those…retention,第二层是but…mumbo-jumbo,第三层是that accompanies…dead。基本上可采用顺序法翻译。

  译文:那些相信死刑的人可能有保留死刑的理由,但是肯定找不到合理的论据来保留那令人厌恶的繁文缛节。这一套繁文缛节从法官戴上顶在假发上的擦笔布似的黑帽子宣判死刑之时开始,一直伴随到为被判处死刑的人在其毙命之前诵读葬礼祷文为止。

  9. The second aspect is the application by all members of society, from the government official to the ordinary citizen, of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in the work.

  分析:这是一个很典型的分割结构。主干结构是:The second aspect is the application…of the special methods of thought and action,application和修饰它的介词短语被一个长长的by短语分割。

  译文:第二个方面是,社会上的一切成员,从政府部门中任工职的官员到普通公民,都应运用科学家们在研究工作中所采用的专门的思维方法和工作方法。

  10.Old Henry and his wife Phoebe were as fond of each other as it is possible for two old people to be who have nothing else in this life to be fond of.

  分析:连词as 引导的比较状语从句中,it 代替for two old people to be。to be 后省略了fond of each other。to be 做分割成分。

  8. As they grow old, people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons: lack of physical and mental energy—both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away—and sentiment.

  分析:该句包含了并列结构被分割的情况。lack of physical and mental energy和sentiment 是并列结构,作two other reasons的同位语。但是被非限定性定语从句both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away分割。

  译文:人们随着日趋年迈,积存物品还有其他两个原因:一是缺乏体力和精神,两者在清理和扔掉无用之物时不可或缺,二是感情上的原因。

  9. Those who believe in capital punishment may have arguments for its retention, but surely no reasonable argument can be found for retention of the sickening mumbo-jumbo that accompanies it from the moment that the judge dons the black cap with what looks like a pen-wiper balanced on the top of his wig, to the reading of the burial service over the condemned man before he is dead.

  分析:这是一个由but引导的并列句。前一分句较简单,who引导的从句作those 的定语,but 后的从句较复杂,从句套从句,for retention…dead是argument的定语。因为它比较长,所以把谓语动词can be found放在它和argument之间,形成分割结构。该句较长,可以分为三层:第一层是those…retention,第二层是but…mumbo-jumbo,第三层是that accompanies…dead。基本上可采用顺序法翻译。

  译文:那些相信死刑的人可能有保留死刑的理由,但是肯定找不到合理的论据来保留那令人厌恶的繁文缛节。这一套繁文缛节从法官戴上顶在假发上的擦笔布似的黑帽子宣判死刑之时开始,一直伴随到为被判处死刑的人在其毙命之前诵读葬礼祷文为止。

  10. The second aspect is the application by all members of society, from the government official to the ordinary citizen, of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in the work.

  分析:这是一个很典型的分割结构。主干结构是:The second aspect is the application…of the special methods of thought and action,application和修饰它的介词短语被一个长长的by短语分割。

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展开全文

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