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2014考研英语:新题型精选试题(二)

来源:跨考2013-04-02

  2014考研英语:新题型精选试题(二)

  Almost all our major problems involve human behavior,and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone.What is needed is a technology of behavior,but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn. (61)One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind,feelings,traits of character,human nature,and so on. Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them. (62)The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.The environment is obviously important,but its role has remained obscure. It does not push or pull,it selects,and this function is difficult to discover and analyze. (63)The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago,and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied. As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood,however,effects once assigned to states of mind,feelings,and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions,and a technology of behavior may therefore become available.It will not solve our problems,however,until it replaces traditional pre_scientific views,and these are strongly entrenched.Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty. (64)They are the possessions of the autonomous(self-governing)man of traditional theory,and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment.It also raises questions concerning“values”.Who will use a technology and to what ends? (65)Until these issues are resolved,a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected,and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.

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  我们遇到的几乎所有重要问题都涉及到人的行为,而且仅靠物理技术和生物技术是无法解决这些问题的。我们所需要的是一种行为技术,但是可能产生这种技术的科学一直发展缓慢。(61)难题之一在于所谓的行为科学几乎全都依然从心态、情感、性格特征、人性等方面去寻找行为的根源。物理学和生物学一度模仿类似的做法并且只有当它们抛弃这些做法后才得到发展。(62)行为科学之所以发展缓慢,部分原因是用来解释行为的依据似乎往往是直接观察到的,部分原因是其他的解释方式一直难以找到。环境因素显然是重要的,但是它的作用仍然是模糊不清的。它既不推动也不阻碍行为科学的发展,它具有选择作用,因而这种作用是很难发现和分析的。(63)自然选择在进化中的作用仅在一百多年前才得以阐明,而环境在塑造和保持个体行为时的选择作用则刚刚开始被认识和研究。然而,由于人(生物)和环境之间的相互作用已经逐渐被人们所认识,所以现在正开始从已知的环境去寻找一度认为是心态、情感和性格特征所造成的影响其根源所在。因此就可以建立一门行为技术。但是,如果行为技术代替不了传统的科学发展以前的观点,那它将无法解决我们的难题。而这些传统的观点是根深蒂固的。自由和尊严是难处之所在。(64)自由和尊严(它们)是传统理论定义的自主人所拥有的,是要求一个人对自己的行为负责并因其业绩而给予肯定的必不可少的前提。科学的分析把责任和成绩归因于环境。它还提出有关“价值观念”的种种问题。谁会使用一门技术?其目的何在?(65)在这些得到解决以前,研究行为的技术手段就会继续受到排斥,解决问题的惟一方式可能也随之继续受到排斥。

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