新题型

2014考研英语:新题型全面解读(二)

来源:跨考2013-10-30

  对于新题型的复习方法,专家们已经总结出许多建议了,无论是整体上,还是针对各个类型题的。下面,小编和大家一起把新题型进行一个整体的梳理,让考生们对新题型有个更全面的了解,备考起来更有方向。  

  七、八大必备解题技巧

  填空式阅读的五道题目中,一般有两道题考查连贯性,这种题对语言基础要求不高,只要熟悉英语中实现语篇连贯的显性连接标志,就可以迅速定位。排序题也有些做题规律技巧。所以,语言基础薄弱的同学,掌握一些必备的做题技巧,对于考试而言,还是非常关键的。最常见的做题技巧有八种:

  1、“亲近原则”。瞻前顾后,在文章空白处的上下文中寻找解题的线索,可根据大家非常熟悉的做完形填空的方法,有些题可以直接根据亲近原则找到答案,非常迅速快捷,准确性也高。

  2、“数字时间和首字母大写原则”。出现数字、时间、年代等词语以及首字母大写(包括人名、地点、组织等)的单词时,大家要把它们划出来,要注意文章中的数字、时间、年代、首字母大写的词汇和选项中的数字、时间、年代、首字母大写词汇要保持上下文一致;尤其是数字(包括具体数字以及和数字相关的词汇诸如ratio,rate等等),我们要列出数字,除了和其它数字进行对比和比较之外,还可以用数据来说明一个观点。大家可根据推导数字时间就能够把答案简单选出。

  3、“代词和逻辑连词原则”。指示代词,因为是指代前面的内容,所以一般不能作为段落的开头,它是选项和原文实现衔接关系的必备词。代词,主要考察指代关系。线索词包括人称代词,特别是第三人称代词(it,its,he,his,him,she,her,they,their,需要注意的是,it本身可以指代天气、时间并且可以做形式主语,此时,不作为词汇线索)、指示代词(this,that,these,those,注意this和 that都可以指代一个句子)以及both、all、each、either、neither等词汇。并列关系、转折、让步、因果关系为考试中出现的最多的逻辑关系。所以大家要对这些上下文关系词保持敏感。也要求大家对选项中的和空前、空后的代词保持极其敏感,它是使全文保持一致的关键。

  4、“选项类似排除原则”。如果有两个选项非常的相似,那么肯定有一个是正确答案,有一个是不正确答案,大家的选择范围就缩短了,正确率就随之提高了。

  5、“词汇重现原则”。包括简单的重复即原词重复和高雅的重复(elegant repetition)即使用同义词或者上下义词(范畴的扩大或者缩小)等。如果一个选项中的单词与文章中的核心词汇重现比较多或意思相近的词汇比较多,那么这个选项就成为优先选项,往往就是正确答案。

  6、“无关选项排除原则”。做7选5填空的时候,如果有文章没有涉及到的话题,建议大家最好使用排除原则,先不要选,放到一边,这样就可以由易到难地去解题。5选5排序题只需要做对四个就可以了,最后一个答案不用做就水到渠成;

  7、结构并列和对比对称原则。如选项与原文的句式和结构保持一致,比如出现排比,对称等关系,或多处位置结构都很相近,此选项是优先选项。我们也要注意积累一些比较类词汇:如 same,identical,as,equal,such,similar,different,other,otherwise,else等等。要对这些词汇特别熟悉。如2006年考研英语第42题,选项中的such evidence就是做题关键。

  8、排序题下下策原则。什么叫下下策,就是这个方法只建议大家在时间不够或自己根本就看不懂文章不知道如何解答的情况下使用,我们蒙也要蒙的科学,蒙的准确率要高。因为排序题是5选5,所以如果五道题目全部选择同一个答案的话,那么你至少可以做对一道,获得2分。当然,以此类推,当考生在5个题目中只有1个或2个或3个确定的情况下,就把剩余的所有题目均选同一个选项,这样至少可以选对一道题。否则极有可能剩余的题目全部猜错,考研的每一分都相当宝贵,不要浪费。当大家遇到前面的题目不会做的情况,建议大家可以先跳过,接着做后面的题目,不用按照题目的顺序答题。

  下面有一篇大纲样题,比较典型。大家可以运用上面的注意事项以及讲解的解题方法技巧实战训练一下:

  Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now. 41).Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. That kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.

  42).Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know nothing.

  43).There were also crablike creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.

  44). Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.

  45).About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.>>>2014考研全程辅导

[page]

  [A]The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known.

  [B]Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.

  [C]The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air.

  [D]The best index fossils tend to be marine creature. There animals evolved rapidly and spread over large over large areas of the world.

  [E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and among these are the sea-lilies, relations of the star- fishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.

  [F]When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved.

  [G]Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.

  本题答案:41.B 42.F 43.E 44.A 4 5.C

  试题分析:

  本篇是一篇科普文章,介绍的是史前类动物。文章结构比较清晰,首先用一般性的介绍来引入史前类动物和记载它们形体和活动的化石,接下来的几段就逐渐按照进化的顺序来一一介绍各种动物。具体分析一下五个空白处的内容。

  41.题考查知识点:段落主题+句子之间的逻辑联系。先看空白处的位置(句中),再看一下空白处的上下文。上文讲的是许多生物都已经灭绝,没有后代生活在这个世界上。下文讲的是化石使我们了解了这些生物的形态。可以推断,空白处是一个衔接的句子,应该是从生物到化石介绍的过渡,再看选项中,[A][B][E]都提到了这两方面内容,但[A][E]谈的是具体的一些生物,不是这段泛泛而谈的所有生物,因此不适合。[B]是正确答案

  42.考查的知识点:下文的新信息。本题考查寻找特征词的能力。在该题中,根据亲近、代词和词汇重现原则在该题后的句子中找到“the fossils”和“water action”为特征词。“the fossils”说明“fossils”一词是至少是第二次出现,因为它前面加了定冠词the,通过仔细观察并不难发现,42以及其前面的内容中都没有 fossils,这就确定fossils一词必定出现在41,42中。根据意群相一致原则,在42中必定要与“water action”同现或复现的语言点。综上所述,有同时满足以上两个条件的选项才是正确答案。虽然[G]项一开始就有“how fossils are preserved”, 但是[G]项讲的是动物遗体上的有机组织转化形式,没有提及水的活动。选项[F]中就多次提到水在化石形成过程中的重要作用,与上下文相符合

  43.考查的知识点:上下文衔接+结构上的呼应。根据结构关系原则。本题选择的特征词是“also”。“also”表并列关系,这就证明在43 前面的句子中应当与also后的crab like creatures相并列,即空白处显然有关于另一动物的内容;从本段开始,文章转向讨论由低级高级变化(进化)中的动物。[E]项开始的部分是“The earliest animals whose remains have been found.”,符合文章写作的顺序。文中出现了these are the sea-lilies与下文的there were also ……相呼应。[B]项与上文相符,但与下文不符,且与全文结构不相吻合。

  44. 考查的知识点:上下文衔接+段落主题。根据代词原则,本题选择的特征词是these以及与其具有同指关系的ammonites 和They 。通过阅读44以后的两个句子不难发现,these,ammonites ,They是指同一事物,意即有“shell”的事物。同时44后一开始就有“Of these,...”,也就是说,空白部分应该有“some, several, many”或类似的词,答案只能是[A]。由于文中有了“The first animals”,为避免句式上的重复,作者改变句子起始的模式。这种做法很多见,因而也是考生阅读和写作中应该注意的。

  45.考查的知识点:上下文衔接。根据亲近原则和数字原则。该题目是一道简单试题,一方面这是一道段落题,这就决定了有可能选最长的选项为答案,另一方面根据亲近原则在下一段首句中发现的About 75 million years ago成为我们解题的关键。从文章的整体结构看,这里需要一个内容的“高潮”:前面几段,动物都在不断地进化,而下文中“About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over”,这里需要有一个“交代”。只有[C]项符合这一条件;同时,“reptile”在本题空白处前文章中从没有提到,在下文中又没有作为新信息,因而作为正确答案的选项中一定有这个词,只有[C]项中有“The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air”。所以正确答案只能是[C]。>>>2014考研公共课复习方法

[page]

  八、最后冲刺,抓住重点,集中突破

  在最后冲刺的关键阶段,每一分,每一秒,每一个方向都很关键。新题型的三种出题形式大家一定要熟悉,而且要有重点的去掌握。《英语考试大纲解析》中有一有趣现象是浓墨重彩地力推排序题,提出排序题和填空式阅读(2005年,2006年和2008年)都考查“文章整体结构”,但“排序题的难度系数大于填空式阅读”,而标题题(2007年)“偏向于考查文章各部分的 ”。从历年考试真题来看,填空式阅读占考查主力,而2007年的标题题全国平均得分率又比较高。所以,今年新题型选择填空式阅读题和排序题考也是在情理之中的。但是,排序题自身存在的致命缺陷,不能不引起广大考生的高度重视,就是我在第七项讲的解题方法中的第八种解题方法,可以采取的下下策的方法。所以考生应该在最后阶段关注填空式阅读题和排序题。尤其是难度系数较大的填空式阅读,这种题目最能体现2009新大纲对阅读理解B节的测试要求:“考查考生对诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征以及文章结构的理解”,因此,考生更应花点功夫总结出出题规律和做题策略来。在最后关键阶段,大家要多做题,多总结,多思考。如果我们能在“得分盲区”多扫出几分,那真是如虎添翼啊。

  最后,预祝2014各位考生都能够取得考研的成功。>>>考研英语暑期阅读

 

[page]
展开全文

  2021考研现场确认已结束,接下来考生们需密切关注准考证打印时间,想要临考刷真题,可前往真题频道(https://www.kuakao.com/pindao/kyzt/)

  2021考研预估人数将达到422w,较2020年增长近80w,2022考研压力将会更大!平时忙于大学课业,这个寒假,跨考考研冬令营不22容错过:考研考情分析,直面院校排名和报考难度,制定突破复习计划;圆桌会,针对梦想与迷茫,你说我听,群策群力;学长姐帮学带,贴切的院校一手资料,从复习到就业情况,全都满足你!

点击右侧咨询或直接前往了解更多

2022考研冬令营
2022考研冬令营学长姐带你解读院校 各专业院校排名情况 从历年会计专硕报录比说MPAcc考研难吗
跨考寒假冬令营开营时间及费用 直属学长姐学帮带
从金融专硕报录比解读金专考研哪些院校最好考 了解跨考考研冬令营开设专业及报考难度
2021考研真题刷题 2015-2020考研数学一真题及解析 2015-2020考研数学二真题及答案解析
西医综合历年考研真题 心理学历年考研真题
其它专业课考研真题 近十年(2010—2020)考研英语一二真题及答案汇总

公共课>英语>新题型

近期热点

相关推荐

2014考研英语暑期复习:新题型的解题技巧

2014考研英语:新题型命题思路

2014阅读新题型:解读7选5

2014考研英语:新题型全面解读(一)

2014考研英语:新题型全面解读(二)

2014考研英语:新题型复习有技巧

2014考研英语新题考研7选5:掌握好方法 提高正确率

大家都在看

2022考研到底要不要报班?这个问题怎么破?

学会这个套路2021考研英语作文拿高分!

2021考研期间的四大睡眠问题 你都知道吗?

2022考研政治高频考点:毛泽东思想的形成和发展

21考研毛中特冲刺考点:“三个代表”重要思想

2021考研政治被马原难住?做题技巧了解下!

2022经济学考研基础复习:宏观经济学模型

跨考分校

加盟