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2014考研英语冲刺:阅读真题解析(3)

来源:跨考2013-12-16

  When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be―even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right―it can hardly be classed as Literature.

  This, in brief, is what the Futurist says: for a century, past conditions of life have been conditionally speeding up, till now we live in a world of noise and violence and speed. Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions have undergone a corresponding change. This speeding up of life, says the Futurist, requires a new form of expression. We must speed up our literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress. We must pour out a large stream of essential words, unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, or finite verbs. Instead of describing sounds we must make up words that imitate them; we must use many sizes of type and different colored inks on the same page, and shorten or lengthen words at will.

  Certainly their descriptions of battles are confused. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river—and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: “ Pluff! Pluff! A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.”

  This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be classed as Literature. All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition: that a great change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. The whole question is really this: have we essentially changed?

  19. This passage is mainly____.

  [A]a survey of new approaches to art

  [B]a review of Futurist poetry

  [C]about merits of the Futurist movement

  [D]about laws and requirements of literature

  20. When a novel literary idea appears, people should try to_____.

  [A]determine its purposes

  [B]ignore its flaws

  [C]follow the new fashions

  [D]accept the principles

  21. Futurists claim that we must____.

  [A]increase the production of literature

  [B]use poetry to relieve modern stress

  [C]develop new modes of expression

  [D]avoid using adjectives and verbs

  22. The author believes that Futurist poetry is____.

  [A]based on reasonable principles

  [B]new and acceptable to ordinary people

  [C]indicative of basic change in human nature

  [D]more of a transient phenomenon than literature

  2014年考研冲刺备考专题

  2014年考研试题答案-跨考教育考后首发

  2014年考研英语作文专题

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  名师解析

  19. This passage is mainly____. 本文中心思想是____。

  [A]a survey of new approaches to art 对新的艺术理论的调查

  [B]a review of Futurist poetry 对未来派诗歌的评论

  [C]about merits of the Futurist movement 有关未来派运动的优点

  [D]about laws and requirements of literature 有关文学的规则和要求

  【答案】 B

  【考点】 文章主旨题。

  【分析】 本文第一段提到“至于未来派诗歌,情况却有点难,因为即使承认未来派诗歌理论根据可能正确,无论它是怎样的,也很难称之为文学”。第二段提到“未来主义者声称,这种加速的生活需要一种新的表达方式。如果我们想解释现代社会的压力,就必须加快文学的速度”。第三段例举了一个未来文学的例子,指出其难以接受。最后一段仍然是对未来文学的批评。因此我们看出本文是一篇文学评论,而且是对未来文学的评论。只有选择[B]。

  20. When a novel literary idea appears, people should try to_____.

  当出现一个新的文学理念时,人们应该努力_____。

  [A]determine its purposes 确定它的目标

  [B]ignore its flaws 忽视它的缺陷

  [C]follow the new fashions 跟随这个新的潮流

  [D]accept the principles 接受原则

  【答案】 A

  【考点】 事实细节题。

  【分析】 本题可以定位到第一段第一句“每当一个新艺术思潮达到一定流行程度时,(在评价它之前)最好先找出其倡导者的目的”。

  21. Futurists claim that we must____.

  未来主义者声称我们必须____。

  [A]increase the production of literature 加大文学的产出

  [B]use poetry to relieve modern stress 用诗歌来减轻现代的压力

  [C]develop new modes of expression 开发出新的表达方式

  [D]avoid using adjectives and verbs 避免使用形容词和动词

  【答案】 C

  【考点】 事实细节题。

  【分析】 根据题干,我们无法定位到任何一段,只能通过具体的选项来做具体的判断。[A]选项错误,文中并没有提到要加大文学的产出,虽然文中提到“如果我们想解释现代社会的压力,就必须加快文学的速度。”但是这句话的意思不是要加大文学的产出,而是加快文学的节奏。[B]选项错误,因为文中在提到压力的时候,只是说“解释”(interpret)压力,而没有说用诗歌来减轻现代的压力。[D]选项错误,文中提到形容词和动词的地方是第二段“我们必须大量使用基本词汇,不受句号,修饰性形容词及限定动词的限制”这一句。但是并没有说避免使用形容词和动词。[C]选项“开发出新的表达方式”这个说法合适,因为文中第二段提到“未来主义者声称,这种加速的生活需要一种新的表达方式”。

  22. The author believes that Futurist poetry is_____. 作者相信未来派诗歌是_____。

  [A]based on reasonable principles 根据合理的原则

  [B]new and acceptable to ordinary people 对普通人而言是新的可接受的

  [C]indicative of basic change in human nature 显示出人性中基本的变化

  [D]more of a transient phenomenon than literature

  与其说是文学不如说是一种暂时的现象

  【答案】 D

  【考点】 中心主旨题。

  【分析】 在本文最后一段,作者说“没有一个善于思考的人会拒绝接受他们的首要主张,即情感生活的巨大变化要求表达方式也随之变化。实际问题是:我们发生了根本的变化吗?”这个问题实际上就已经否定了未来主义者的首要主张,即他们对历史和现实的认识是不正确的,所以其理论根据是站不住脚的。所以说未来派诗歌并没有稳定的理论基础,只是一个暂时的现象。

  2014年考研冲刺备考专题

  2014年考研试题答案-跨考教育考后首发

  2014年考研英语作文专题

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  难句解析:

  1. When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.

  【结构分析】 本句可以分为两个部分,“for”为分界词。在前半部分中“it”是形式主语,真正的主语是“to”引导的不定式短语,这个短语中又出现了一个宾语从句。 “when”引导一个状语从句,表示时间。后半句中“it”仍然是形式主语,“that”引导一个主语从句。“however”引导一个让步状语从句。

  2. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be—even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right—it can hardly be classed as Literature.

  【结构分析】 本句是一个因果关系的并列句。前一个分句的主句是“the case is rather difficult”,其中“however”表示此句与上一句之间是转折关系;原因为“for”之后的部分,其中破折号之间的部分是插入语,表示一种让步,“on which it is based”是“the theory”的定语从句,“it”指代“Futurist poetry”。

  3. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river—and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: “Pluff! Pluff! A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.”

  【结构分析】 本句“it”是形式主语,真正的主语是动词不定式“to read”及后面的宾语从句和“to find”及其后面的宾语从句。“read”的宾语从句是“that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river”;“find”的宾语从句是“that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: ‘Pluff! Pluff! A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.’”。

  全文翻译:

  当一场新的艺术运动获得某种流行时,最好找出其倡导者的目标是什么,因为无论他们的原则在今天看来是多么牵强和不合理,将来都有可能被认为是正常的。至于未来派诗歌,情况却有点难,因为即使承认未来派诗歌理论根据可能正确,无论它是怎样的,也很难称之为文学。

  长话短说,以下就是未来主义者说的话:一个世纪以来,先前的生活一直在有条件地加快变化;如今,我们生活的世界喧嚣、暴力、节奏很快。因此,我们的感觉、思想和情感都经历了相应的变化。未来主义者声称,这种加速的生活需要一种新的表达方式。如果我们想解释现代社会的压力,就必须加快文学的速度。我们必须大量使用基本词汇,不受句号,修饰性形容词及限定动词的限制。我们必须造出模仿声音的词语而不是描绘声音;我们必须在同一张纸上使用多种字体和不同颜色的墨水,任意缩短或加长词语。

  当然他们对战斗的描述也是混乱的。让人心烦的一件事就是:在读到一句描写战斗的诗行的注解时,该注解中说该诗描写了一名土耳其军官和一名保加利亚军官在一座桥上发生了搏斗,结果双双从桥上掉进河中——结果,诗把他们两人落水的声音和体重写在了一起:“扑通!扑通!100公斤和85公斤。”

  尽管这符合未来派诗歌的规则和要求,却几乎不能被归入文学之列。同样的,没有一个善于思考的人会拒绝接受他们的首要主张,即情感生活的巨大变化要求表达方式也随之变化。实际问题是:我们发生了根本的变化吗?

  2014年考研冲刺备考专题

  2014年考研试题答案-跨考教育考后首发

  2014年考研英语作文专题

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