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2020考研英语语法难点归纳:【形容词、副词及比较级最高级】
跨考考研2019-07-04
来源跨考网整理
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  七月已来,在考研英语中,一些重点语法考察频率很高,因此各位考生要予以重视。语法是英语学习的基础。下面是小编整理的2020考研英语语法难点归纳,希望可以对同学们在复习语法时能有所帮助,希望对2020考研的你带来帮助!

  (二) 形容词、副词及比较级最高级

  一.形容词的修饰与位置

  一般来说,从构词法角度来看,后缀”ly”往往是副词,但有的以“ly’结尾的词是形容词而不是副词,这点要注意;形容词一般可以在句子中做定语,表语等成份,但有些形容词在句子中只能做表语和只能做前置定语;这些形容词在修饰时候有一定的特殊性要引起大家的注意,下面做了一下归纳:

  1 以-ly结尾的是形容词而不是副词:

  costly 昂贵的 lonely 孤独的

  deadly 死一般的 lively 活泼的

  friendly 友好的 silly 傻气的

  kindly 热心肠的 likely 可能的

  leisurely 悠闲的 ugly 长得丑的

  brotherly 兄弟般的 monthly 每月的

  earthly 尘世的

  2 只作以“a”开头的很多形容词只能做表语:

  afraid 害怕的 alike 相象的

  awake 醒着的 alone 单独的,惟一的

  alive 活着的 ashamed 羞愧的

  asleep 睡着的 aware 意识到的、察觉到的

  well 健康的 content 满意的

  unable 无能的

  3 只作前置定语的形容词

  earthen 泥土做的,大地的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的

  golden 金子般的 weekly 每周的 inner 里面的

  silken 丝一般的 monthly 每月的 outer 外面的

  wooden 木制的 yearly 每年的 elder 年长的

  woolen 毛织的 former 前任的 mere 仅,只不过

  only 惟一的 sheer 纯粹的 very 恰好的

  little 小的 live 活的

  4.下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词,注意用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语:

  remain keep become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look。

  如:All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics.

  二.形容词与副词的比较级与最高级

  1. 考比较级时,考生应把握:

  1)形容词和副词比较级的形式是否和比较连词对应出现,即是否符合原级比较及比较级的结构。如:

  Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often , or better than an actual performance.

  [A]as good as [B]as good [C]good [D]good as

  在这里as good as 比较连词与better than比较连词同时出现时候,不能省略任何一个介词。答案为A

  On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition.

  2)比较的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概念,既是说比较要具有可比性。如:

  The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half .

  [A] of last year’s [B]those of last year’s

  [C]of those of last year [D] that of last year’s

  (前后相比的应该是今年和去年注册参加的人数“the number of”故代替它的应该是单数指示代词“that”,而不能选择B,those是指代participants,不是同类对比,答案为D。

  Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of dickens far more exciting than Thackeray’s.

  3)比较级与倍数词关系及其位置

  原级结构中可插入表达倍数的词,表示为“为….若干倍”,当与有表示倍数比较的词在一起时候等,他们的位置是,倍数词+as…as…,或倍数词+more…than…,但again一般放在原级词之后,即 “as+原级+again+as”.如:

  Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills people each year than automobile accidents.

  [A] seven more times [B] seven times more

  [C] over seven times [D] seven times

  (答案为B)

  “Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?”“No, I would gladly have paid for it.”

  [A] twice so much [B] twice as much

  [C] as much twice [D] so much twice

  (答案为B)

  My uncle is as old again as I am

  4)下列词和短语不用比较级形式却表示比较概念:

  inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer to, superior, major, junior, preferable, differ from, compared with, in comparison with, different from, rather than. 如:

  Their watch is to all the other watches on the market.

  [A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super [D] beneficial

  (答案为A)

  Prior to his departure, he addressed a letter to his daughter. (1986年考研题)

  5)“比较级+and +比较级”或“more and more/less and less +原级”以及“ever, steadily, daily等副词+比较级”结构表示“越来越……”的意思,与这类结构搭配的常用动词有grow, get ,become等。前面两种情况更多地出现在进行时态中,注意的是这三种情况引导的比较级后面都不需要用than.如:

  Things are getting worse and worse.

  As I spoke to him he became less and less angry.

  Her health was becoming daily worse

  The road got ever worse until there was no road at all = the road got worse and worse.

  6)比较级前面可以用even, still, yet ,all the (more)等修饰语用以加强语气,表示“更加”的意思。如

  Today it is even colder than yesterday

  I have yet more exciting news for you

  7) 有关比较级的特殊句型:

  A): not so much…as…与其说……不如说……

  The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

  [A] and [B] as [C]but [D] or

  人口增长的主要原因与其说是因为出生率的提高,还不如说是因为医疗的进步带来的死亡率下降的结果。答案为B

  B) no/not any more…than…两者一样都不……

  The heart is intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.

  [A] not so [B]not much [C]much more [D] no more

  (心脏和胃两者都不具有智力,他们都受大脑控制。答案为D)

  There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, they can limit how much water you drink.

  [A] much more than [B] no more than

  [C] no less than [D] any more than

  (答案为D)

  C)no/not any less…than…两者一样,都……注意基本上与no/not any more…than意思相反

  She is no less beautiful than her sister.她和她姐姐一样漂亮

  D)just as… so… 正如……, ……也……(用倒装结构)

  Just as the soil is a part of the earth, the atmosphere.

  [A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is

  (答案为C)

  2.最高级形式应注意的问题:

  1)最高级比较范围用介词in, over, of, among。

  in, (all) over用于在某一范围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world.

  of, among用于在同一群体内同类事物的比较,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses.

  注意:among…相当于one of …,不说among all…。这一点考生应与汉语表达区别开来

  如:

  all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.

  [A] Among [B] Of [C]For [D]To 答案为[B]

  2)比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象的范围应用:

  any other +单数名词

  the other +复数名词

  the others

  anyone/anything else

  上述词是用业将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是other,否则会造成逻辑混乱的错误。如不能说:John runs faster than anyone.注意与汉语表达的不同。

  3)most可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思相当于very,用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠词the,如:a most interesting book, most expensive restaurants, 要注意与 “the +形容词最高级+of + 名词”的结构表示的最高级的区别,如:

  He spoke in the warmest of voices

  They have been most kind to me

  Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country.

  Chinese is the most difficult of language

  Chinese is a most difficult language

  三.不用比较级和最高级的形容词:

  1)表示颜色的有:white, black

  2)表示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level

  3)表示性质和特征的有:atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy

  4)表示状态作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike

  5)表示时间、空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final

  6)表示极限、主次、等级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite

  7)含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete.

  四.平行结构与比较级

  平行结构很多情况下是由形容词或副词的比较级或者暗含比较意味的连词引导的。如:

  The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.

  大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比较含义的,有的是递进对比not only…but (also) ;prefer…to…;rather than有的是同类对比:and ;but;or;both… and…;either…or…; neither…nor…..

  平行结构测试时候注意以下几点:

  1.注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上是否相同。如:

  It is better to die one’s feet than .

  [A]living on one’s knees [B]live on one’s knees

  [C]on one’s knees [D]to live on one’s knees

  (答案为D)

  Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.

  2.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引导平行结构。

  1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如:

  We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style.

  [A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than

  答案为A

  For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required.

  [A] to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]let’s say

  (答案为B)

  2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。如:

  At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

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