1. 绝大部分形容词既可作定语又可作表语,但少数形容词只能作定语,放在名词前,常见的有: daily,weekly,monthly,former,latter,woolen,wooden;也有少数形容词只能作表语,置于be后,这些表语形容词一般以字母a开头。


  afraid alive alone alike ashamed

  awake aware asleep afire

  例句: This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of 80 European television networks, no less than 50 took a loss in 1989. (2005年第48题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,含有多个从句,a fact underlined by statistics that后接一定语从句,show后又接一宾语从句,其中no less than可译为“不少于,至少”;take a loss 译为“亏本,赔本”。

  译文: 仅这一点就足以证明,要在电视行业里生存下来并非易事,统计数字尤其说明了这一事实: 在欧洲国家的80个电视网络中,多达一半的公司在1989年亏损。

  2. 作定语的形容词一般用作前置修饰语,但在下列情况中,形容词作后置定语。


  例句: I'd say whenever you are going after something belonging to you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal. (1997年第21题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,从句who is depriving you of the right to have it作anyone的定语,whenever you are going after something belonging to you作say的宾语从句中的状语。

  译文: 我想说无论什么时候当你追求某种属于你的东西时,任何想剥夺你拥有它的权利的人都是在犯罪。


  例句: Any student careful enough to take the exam is sure to succeed in the end.

  分析: 该句是简单句,careful enough to take the exam 作定语修饰student。

  译文: 参加考试的任何一位学生只要足够细心最终就一定会取得成功。



  the member present (出席的成员)

  court martial (军事法庭)

  Secretary General (秘书长)

  例句: I was unaware of the critical points involved, so my choice was quite arbitrary. (1998年第37题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 我没有意识到问题的关键所在,因此我的抉择十分武断。

  例句: There were many people present and he appeared only for a few seconds, so I only caught a glimpse of him. (1998年第22题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 来的人很多,而他只到场一会儿,所以我只见了他一眼。

  3. 表度量的形容词。

  例句: There is a heavily polluted river 100 meters long in front of our small playground.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 我们小操场前有一条长100米被严重污染的河。

  4. 形容词并列用作定语时的位置。

  限定词→数量(序数前、基数后)→形状→大小、长短、高低等度量→新旧→颜色→国籍→ 材料

  例句: I have never seen these beautiful round multi colored Chinese cloisonne(景泰蓝) vases in my first three years in China.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 在中国的最初三年中,我从来没有见过这些颜色各异的圆形中式景泰蓝花瓶。



  contemptuous (表示轻蔑的)

  desirous (渴望的)

  envious (羡慕别人的)

  expressive (表情丰富的)

  forgetful (健忘的)

  imaginative (富于想象的)

  perceptive (感觉敏锐的)

  persuasive (能说服的,有说服力的)

  respectful (表示尊敬的)

  tolerant (容忍的,容许的) 客观意义,如:

  contemptible (轻视的,卑劣的)

  desirable (值得要的,想要的)

  enviable (令人羡慕的)

  expressible (可表达出来的)

  forgettable (可忘记的)

  imaginable (可想象出来的)

  perceptible (可感觉的)

  persuasible (可说服的,听话的)

  respectable (可敬的)

  tolerable (可容忍的)

  例句: The authors are witheringly contemptuous of the bogus equation of tidiness and morality, for example, in corporate “clean desk” policies.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 作者毫不留情地批评了将整洁与道德相等同的做法,例如,公司内“清洁办公桌”的政策。

  例句: We should be alert to the possibility that individuals, organizations or governments tend to pied a worthy goal in excuse of their contemptible means and selfish interests.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that individuals,organizations or governments tend to...作possibility的同位语。

  译文: 我们应当警惕这种可能性: 个人、组织或政府以高尚的目标作为他们采取卑鄙手段 和获取私利的借口。




  the poor (穷人)

  the blind (盲人)

  the deaf (聋子)

  the few/the many (少数人/多数人)

  the dying (奄奄一息的人)

  the killed (死了的人)

  the oppressed (被压迫的人们)

  the aged,the weak,the sick and the disabled (老弱病残)

  the living (活着的人)

  例句: The old are cared well in a home for the poor and aged.

  译文: 老人在养老院里得到了很好的照料。

  例句: The poor are very happy, but the rich are sad.

  译文: 穷人很快乐,富人却不快乐。

  少数词接单数动词,如: the departed/the deceased (死者), the beautiful (美好的事物), the unexpected (意外情况)。

  例句: The deceased has been sent to the funeral parlor.

  译文: 死者已经被送往殡仪馆。



  three-year-old child (三岁的孩子)

  six-storied building (六层的楼房)

  one-eyed donkey (一只眼的驴)

  其他如: prep. /adj. /n. /adv.+p.p.(分词)

  off-putting (令人讨厌的)

  nit-picking (找茬的,吹毛求疵的)

  free-living (生活无拘束的)

  hard-wearing (耐穿的)

  star-crossed (命运不佳的,倒霉的)

  tender-hearted (心肠软的,慈善的)

  well-intentioned (善意的,好心的)

  例句: People who live in small towns often seem more friendly than those living in densely populated areas. (1999年第27题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中those living...相当于those who live in...。

  译文: 住在小镇上的人似乎往往比住在人口稠密地区的人更为友好。

  例句: In this way these insects show an efficient use of their sound-producing ability, organizing two sounds delivered at a high rate as one call. (1997年第16题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,organizing two sounds delivered...作伴随状语。

  译文: 通过这种方式这些昆虫能展示它们高超的发音功能,在很高的频率下发出两种声波作为一次鸣叫。


  英语中绝大多数形容词都可以用来表示比较意义,但有一部分形容词本身已经带有比较的含义, 因此这些词没有比较级和最高级形式,如:

  only, mere, sole, extreme, supreme, perfect, single, real, utmost, eternal, principal, chief, main, empty, matchless, unique, wonderful, square等。

  例句: My favorite radio song is the one I first heard on a thick 1923 Edison disc I stumbled upon at a garage sale. (2001年第22题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,I first heard on a thick 1923 Edison disc与I stumbled upon at a garage sale是两个定语从句,分别修饰the one和Edison disc。

  译文: 在一次现场旧货出售中我偶然碰到一张1923年的爱迪生唱片,从那张唱片上我第一次听到了我最喜欢的广播歌曲。




  例句: Critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared. (选自2009年Text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that commercial genetic testing...作argue的宾语,to which a sample is compared是一个修饰the reference collections的定语从句。

  译文: 批评家们还指出,商业基因检测的好坏取决于用于样本对比的参考样本的好坏。

  例句: Scientists generally agree that the Earth's climate will warm up over the next 50 to 100 years as much as it has warmed in the 2,000 years since the Ice Age.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that the Earth's...Ice Age 作agree的宾语从句。

  译文: 科学家们普遍认为,地球气候未来50年到100年的时间里会变暖,变暖的程度与自冰河世纪以来的2 000年的时间里变暖的程度一样。




  例句: It's a message even more bitter than a clove cigarette, yet, somehow, a breath of fresh air. (选自2006年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是简单句,even more bitter than...修饰a message。

  译文: 读这一消息的滋味甚至比抽丁香烟还要苦,但却不知怎么地带来了一股清新的气息。

  例句: These recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today's live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener's choosing. (选自2011年Text 1)




  形式为:...not so (as)+原级+as...=less+原级+ than

  例句: According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. (选自2011年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中,分词短语concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples作后置定语,修饰studies,从句that parents are less happy than childless couples又充当concluding的宾语。

  译文: 结论为 “为人父母者不如无子女者幸福”的多项研究表明,单亲父母最不幸福。

  例句: Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中those代表lives。

  译文: 他们的生活同其下属一样空虚。


  1. 优等比较。

  形式为: the+最高级+单数名词或one +of (in短语)/that从句(仅限于形容词)。

  例句: It soon becomes clear that the interior designer's most important basic concern is the function of the particular space.

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中it为形式主语,真正的主语为that the interior designer's most important...。

  译文: 室内设计者最基本的关注点就是某一特定空间的功能,这一点很快就清楚了。

  例句: I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&A wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers' demands. (选自2001年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分为I believe that..., that require enlarged...demands是修饰falling transportation...and enlarged markets的定语从句,形容词短语capable of meeting customers' demands修饰operations,其中be the same that...意为“……与……是相同的”。

  译文: 我认为引起这场大规模合并浪潮的最重要的力量与导致全球化的力量是相同的: 运输与通信费用下降,贸易与投资障碍减少,市场扩大。这一切都需要扩大业务往来以满足消费者的需求。

  2. 劣等比较。

  形式为: the+least+原级+(单数名词或one)+of(in短语)/that从句(仅限于形容词)。

  例句: In class, she is the least talented girl in mastering foreign language that I have ever taught.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that I have ever taught是修饰girl的定语从句。

  译文: 她是我在班里教过的在外语学习方面最缺乏天分的女孩。

  3. 比较级表示最高级含义。

  形式为: 比较级+ than any other+单数名词。

  例句: The campus of this university is much more beautiful than any other campus.

  译文: 这所大学的校园是最漂亮的。

  4. 最高级形容词前加定冠词the,但作表语不和他人或物作比较时,可省去the。

  例句: I have been busiest these days for writing papers.

  译文: 写论文的这些天是我最忙的时间。



  Are your jobs more important than Jack?

  (说法错误。你的工作不能和Jack比较;应该是和Jack的工作相比较,因此该句正确的说法为: Are your jobs more important than Jack's?)

  The climate of Shanxi Province is much better than Henan Province.

  (说法错误。山西的气候不能和河南省比较;应该是和河南省的气候相比较,因此该句正确的说法为: The climate of Shanxi Province is much better than that of Henan Province. )

  例句: Meanwhile, many settlers had slighter religious commitments than Dane's, as one clergyman learned in confronting folk along the coast who mocked that they had not come to the New World for religion. (选自2009年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干是many settlers had slighter religious commitments than Dane's。 Dane's 后省略了religious commitment,as one clergyman learned...是一个方式状语从句, who mocked...是一个修饰folk的定语从句,they had not come to the New World for religion是that引导的宾语从句,作mock的宾语。

  译文: 同时,许多移居者对宗教的虔诚不如丹的表现,正如一位神职人员从在海边遇到的一些人那里听到的一样,那些人嘲弄地说道他们来新大陆并不是为了宗教。






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