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2020考研英语二真题阅读理解Text2原文及答案解析

来源:跨考2019-12-23

  2020考研英语二考试已经结束,希望大家考的都不错,下面是跨考考研英语教研室老师第一时间为大家整理的2020考研英语二真题阅读理解text2原文及答案解析,以供参考。

  Text 2

  It is true that CEO pay has gone up-top ones may make 300 times the pay of typical workers on average, and since the mid-1970s CEO pay for large publicly traded American corporations has, by varying estimates, gone up by about 500% The typical CEO of a top American corporation now makes about S18.9 million a year.

  The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly. The efforts of America's highest-earning 1% have been one of the more dynamic elements of the global economy. It's not popular to say, but one reason their pay has gone up so much is that CEOs really have upped their game relative to many other workers in the U.S. economy.

  Today's CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many mere skills than simply being able to“run the company" CEOs must have a good sense of financial markets and maybe even how the company should trade in them. They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. Then there' s the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before,with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requires knowledge that is farly mind-boggling plus, virtually all major American companies are beyond this major CEOs still have to do all the day-to-day work they have always done.

  The common idea that high CEO pay is mainly about ripping people off doesn't explain history very well. By most measures, corporate governmance has become a lot tighter and more rigorous since the 1970s. Yet it is principally during this period of stronger govemnance that CEO pay has been high and rising. That suggests it is in the broader corporate interest to recruit top candidates for increasingly tough jobs.”

  Furthermore, the highest CEO salaries are paid to outside candidates, not to the cozy insider picks, another sign that high CEO pay is not some kind of depredation at the expense of the rest of the company. And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.

  26. Which of the following has contributed to CEO pay rise?

  [A] The growth in the number of corporations

  [B] The general pay rise with a better economy

  [C] Increased business opportunities for top firms

  [D] Close cooperation among leading economies

  27. Compared with their predecessors, today's CEOs are required to______

  [A] foster a stronger sense of teamwork

  [B] finance more research and development

  [C] establish closer ties with tech companies

  [D] operate more globalized companies

  28. CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite______

  [A] continual internal opposition

  [B] strict corporate governance

  [C] conservative business strategies

  [D] Repeated government warnings

  29. High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it helps______

  [A] confirm the status of CEOs

  [B] motivate inside candidates

  [C] boost the efficiency of CEOs

  [D] increase corporate value

  30. The most suitable title for this text would be______

  [A] CEOs Are Not Overpaid

  [B] CEO Pay: Past and Present

  [C] CEOs' challenges of Today

  [D] CEO Traits: Not Easy to Define

  26.【答案】C Increased business opportunities for top firms

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词CEO pay rise及题干中对CEO薪酬增加原因的提问,定位到第二段首句The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly.了解CEO薪酬增长的最佳模式是,CEO人才在一个顶级公司的商业机会迅速增长的世界里是有限的。正确答案C Increased business opportunities for top firms增加顶级公司商业机会的增加。干扰项A的The growth in the number of corporations公司数量的增长,文中并不是说公司数量而是商业机会,属于偷换概念。选项B的The general pay rise with a better economy好转的经济带来的普遍加薪,文中并未提到better economy,属于无中生有。选项D的Close cooperation among leading economies 主要经济体之间的密切合作,文中也并未提到经济体之间的何做,属于无中生有。

  27.【答案】D operate more globalized companies

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词predecessors及today's CEOs定位到第三段第二句They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. 他们还需要比他们的前任更好的公关技巧,因为即使是一个小失误的成本也可能是巨大的。选项中并未提到,继续往后看Then there's the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. 还有一个事实是,美国的大公司比以往任何时候都更加全球化,供应链遍布更多的国家。正确答案D operate more globalized companies经营更全球化的公司是该句内容的同义替换。干扰项A的foster a stronger sense of teamwork培养更强的团队合作意识,文中提到意识,只有对金融市场有很好的了解,甚至公司应该如何进行交易的意识,属于偷换概念。选项B的finance more research and development资助更多的研发,定位段并没有提到,属于无中生有。选项D的establish closer ties with tech companies与科技公司建立更紧密的联系,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

  28.【答案】B strict corporate governance

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词the 1970s定位到第四段第三句Yet it is principally during this period of stronger governance that CEO pay has been high and rising. 然而,首席执行官的薪酬主要是在这一治理更加有力的时期一直居高不下。正确答案B strict corporate governance严格的公司管理,属于原文内容的替换表达。干扰项A的continual internal opposition持续的内部对立在文中并未提到,属于无中生有。选项C的 conservative business strategies 保守的商业策略,定位段并没有提到,属于无中生有。选项D的repeated government warnings 政府的再三警告定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

  29.【答案】D increase corporate value

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词High CEO pay及顺序出题规则,继续看尾段,定位句是And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.当公司把首席执行官的薪酬与股票价格挂钩时,股票市场的反应是积极的,这表明这些做法不仅为首席执行官带来机制,而且创造了公司价值。正确答案D increase corporate value增加公司价值,是原文内容的替换表达。干扰项A的confirm the status of CEOs证实CEO的地位,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项B的motivate inside candidates激发内部候选人的积极性,文中尾段首句首席执行官的最高薪水是付给外部候选人的,而不是付给那些舒适的内部人选,属于偷换概念。选项C的boost the efficiency of CEOs提高CEO的效率,定位段未提到,属于无中生有。

  30. 【答案】A CEOs Are Not Overpaid

  解析:本题目为主旨题,考察文章主旨。根据题干分析文章主题词为CEO的薪酬,所以排除C项、D项选项A的CEOs Are Not Overpaid 首席执行官的薪水并不高。选项B的CEO Pay: Past and Present CEO的薪酬:过去和现在,而CEO过去的薪酬并不是原文中心,属于偏离主题,因此正确选项为A。

  (本文为跨考教育教研室原创,转载请注明出处。)

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