Madrid was hailed as a public health beacon last November when it rolled out ambitious restrictions on the most polluting cars. Seven months and one election day later, a new conservative city council suspended enforcement of the clean air zone, a first step toward its possible demise.
Mayor Jose Luis Martinez -Almeida made opposition to the zone a centrepiece of his election campaign, despite its success in improving air quality. A judge has now overruled the city 's decision to stop levying fines, ordering them reinstated. But with legal battles ahead, the zone's future looks uncertain at best.
Among other weaknesses, the measures cities must employ when left to tackle dirty air on their own are politically contentious, and therefore vulnerable. That s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers一who must pay fees or buy better vehicles 一rather than on to the car manufacturers whose cheating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.
It's not hard to imagine a similar reversal happening in London. The new ultra-low emission zone (Ulez) is likely to be a big issue in next year's mayoral election. And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.
It's not that measures such as London's Ulez are useless. Far from it. Local officials are using the levers that are available to them to safeguard residents' health in the face of a serious threat. The zones do deliver some improvements to air quality, and the science tells us that means real health benefits - fewer heart attacks, strokes and premature births, less cancer, dementia and asthma. Fewer untimely deaths.
But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments一Britain s and others across Europe - have failed to do so.
Restrictions that keep highly polluting cars out of certain areas - city centres, 。school streets", even individual roads - are a response to the absence of a larger effort to properly enforce existing regulations and require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance. Wales has introduced special low speed limits to minimise pollution. We re doing everything but insist that manufacturers clean up their cars.
31. Which of the following is true about Madrid's clean air zone?
[A] Its effects are questionable
[B]It has been opposed by a judge
[C] It needs tougher enforcement
[D] Its fate is yet to be decided
32. Which is considered a weakness of the city-level measures to tackle dirty air?
[A] They are biased against car manufacturers.
[B] They prove impractical for city councils.
[C] They are deemed too mild for politicians.
D] They put too much burden on individual motorists.
33. The author believes that the extension of London's Ulez will .
[A] arouse strong resistance.
[B] ensure Khan's electoral success.
[C] improve the city s traffic.
[D] discourage car manufacturing.
34. Who does the author think should have addressed the problem?
[A] Local residents
[D] National governments.
35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that auto companies.
[A] will raise low-emission car production
[B]should be forced to follow regulations
[C] will upgrade the design of their vehicles
[D] should be put under public supervision
31.【答案】D Its fate is yet to be decided
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Madrid's clean air zone定位到前两段，首段说明背景Madrid's clean air zone的执行暂停。继续找第二段，尽管能够提高空气质量，但是市长表示反对。一位法官现在否决了该市停止征收罚款的决定，下令恢复原状。但随着法律斗争的进行，Madrid's clean air zone的未来看起来也不确定。正确答案D Its fate is yet to be decided它的命运尚未决定，是原文内容的替换表达。选项A的 Its effects are questionable.其效果值得怀疑。与原文内容相反，属于正反混淆。选项B的It has been opposed by a judge.它遭到法官的反对。文中法官反对的并不是Madrid's clean air zone，而是停止征收罚款的决定。选项C的It needs tougher enforcement.它需要更严格的执行。文中是执行已经停止，与原文内容不符，属于偷换概念。
32.【答案】D They put too much burden on individual motorists.
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词a weakness of the city-level measures及tackle dirty air定位到第三段第二句：That’s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers—who must pay fees or buy better vehicles—rather than on to the car manufacturers whose heating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.这是因为他们不可避免地把清洁空气的费用转嫁给那些必须支付费用或购买更好车辆的司机，而不是汽车制造商，因为他们的供暖是造成我们有毒污染的真正原因。正确答案D They put too much burden on individual motorists.他们给个人驾车者增加了太多负担与原文内容一致。选项A的 They are biased again car manufactures.他们对汽车制造商有偏见，文中提到汽车制造商，却并未提到对其有无偏见，属于偷换概念。选项B的They prove impractical for city councils.这些措施对市议会来说是不切实际的。选项C的They are deemed too mild for politicians.他们被认为对政治家来说太温和了。定位段并未提到，属于无中生有。
33.【答案】A arouse strong resistance
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词 extension和London’s Ulez定位到第四段：And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.如果 Sadiq Khan在2021年胜出，并按照他的意愿将其延伸至南北环路，肯定会引发更多驾车者的强烈反对，届时他们将受到影响。正确答案A arouse strong resistance引起强烈抵抗与原文内容一致。选项B的ensure Khans electoral success确保Khans选举成功，文中提到的是如果这个人赢了，属于偷换概念。选项C的 improve the city's traffic改善城市交通，定位段并未提到，属于无中生有。选项D的discourage car manufacturing抑制汽车制造业也并未在定位段提到，属于无中生有。
34.【答案】D National governments
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干信息，问的是作者的具体观点。定位到第六段：But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments-Britain's and others across Europe- have failed to do so.但是市长和议员们只能对一个比任何一个城市或城镇都大得多的问题做这么多的工作。他们之所以采取行动，是因为英国和欧洲其他国家的政府未能做到这一点。正确答案D National governments作者认为国家政府应该解决这个问题，与原文内容一致。选项A的 Local residents当地居民，定位段并未提到，属于无中生有。选项B和C的mayors and councillors出现在定位句，但是与原文内容相反，属于正反混淆。
35. 【答案】B should be forced to follow regulations
解析：本题目为推断题，考察具体细节的推断。根据题干信息auto companies，定位到尾段首句：require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance要求汽车公司使其车辆符合要求。正确答案B should be forced to follow regulations应该被迫遵守规定，与原文信息一致。选项A的 will raise low-emission car production将提高低排放汽车产量，定位段并未提到，属于无中生有。选项C和D的will upgrade the design of their vehicles 和 should be put under public supervision将升级他们的车辆设计、应该接受公众监督在原文中没有相关信息。