1、abdicate(vt)formally relinquish (power,a high official position)正式放弃(权力、高 位)

  He has abdicated all responsibility in the affair 他已经放弃了这件事中的一切职责。

  ◎ abdication(n)

  ★ relinquish(vt)give up or cease to practice,abandon;不再采取行动,不再有某种感觉, 放弃

  He had relinquished all hope that she was alive。他已经放弃了她还活着的希望。

  ★ abandon(vt)离开(某人某物某地)而不返回,遗弃、抛弃;离弃

  give orders to abandon ship 下令弃船

  (vt)give up completely(esp sth began)完全放弃(尤指已经开始的事物,如方 案、设计、计划等)

  The match was abandoned because of bad weather。比赛因恶劣天气而取消。

  (vt) yield completely to(an emotion of impulse)完全屈从于(某种情感或冲动) ~ oneself to sth

  He abandoned himself to despair。他陷入绝望中

  ◎ abandonment(n)

  ★ surrender(vi,vt) stop resisting an enemy,yield;give up 停止抵抗,投降,屈服,放

  弃;~ (oneself)(to sb)

  The hijackers finally surrendered to the police。劫机者终于向警方投降了。

  (vt) give up possession of sth/sb when forced by others or by necessity;hand sth/sb over 被迫 放弃对某物(某人)的控制权,交出某事物(某人)

  ◎ surrender(n)

  2、accrue(vi)come as a natural increase or advantage,esp financial;accumulate 自然增长 或利益增加(尤指财务);积累 ~ to sb from sth

  Interest will accrue if you keep your money in a saving account 把钱存在储蓄帐户里就会生息。

  ◎ accrual(n)

  ★ accumulat(e

  vt)gradually get or gather together an increasing number or quantity of sth get

  sth in this way 积累,聚积(某物)

  accumulate enough evidence to ensure his conviction 搜集足够的证据以给他定罪。

  (vi)increase in number or quantity 增加

  Dust and dirt soon accumulate if a house is not cleaned regularly。房屋不经常打扫,尘土很快就会 越积越多。

  ◎ accumulative(adj)

  ◎ accumulation)(n)

  ★ amass(vt)gather together or collect esp in large quantities (尤指大量的)积累,积聚, 收集(某事物)

  amass a fortune 积累财富

  ★ gather(v)come or bring sb/sth in one place 聚集,集合,召集 ~ sb/sth round sth/sb

  a musical evening with the whole family gathered round the piano。全家围坐在钢琴旁的音乐晚会

  (vt)bring together objects that have been spread about 收集,收拢(分散的东 西) ~ sth together/up

  She gathered up her scattered belongings and left。她把自己的散乱物品收好就走了。

  3、badger(vt)pester sb,nag sb persistently 纠缠某人,烦扰某人 ~ sb with/for sth ~ sb into doing sth

  She kept badgering her father into answering strange questions。她一直缠着爸爸回答奇怪的问题。


  ★ bothe(r

  vt)cause trouble or annoyance to sb,pester sb 打扰或烦扰某人,给某人添麻烦 ~

  sb about/with sb

  I am sorry to bother you,but could you tell me the way to the station。对不起打扰一下,


  (vt) worry sb 使某人不安

  The problem has been bothering me for weeks。那问题已经困扰了我几个星期。

  ★ pester(vt) annoy or disturb sb esp with frequent requests 打扰或纠缠某人(尤指不断提 出要求)

  Beggars pestered him for money。乞丐缠着向他讨钱。

  4、baffle(vt)be too difficult for sb to understand;puzzle 使某人困惑,难倒

  Police are baffled as to the identity of the killer。警方不解凶手是谁

  ◎ bafflement(n)

  ◎ baffling(adj)难以了解的

  ★ bewilder(vt)puzzle sb;confuse 迷惑某人,混乱

  The child was bewildered by the noise and the crowds。孩子让噪声和人群弄的晕头转向。



  ★ confuse(vt)(通常用于被动语态)make sb unable to think clearly;puzzle;bewilder 把 某人弄糊涂,使迷惑,使为难

  They confused me by asking so many questions。他们提了一大堆问题把我都弄糊涂


  (vt)mistake one person or thing with another 混淆 ~ A and/with B

  Don’t confuse Austria and Australia。不要把奥地利跟澳大利亚弄混淆了。

  5、conjecture(v)(书面语)form and express an opinion not based on firm evidence;guess 推 测,猜测 ~ about sth

  Don’t conjectured about the outcome。不要对结果妄加猜测。


  Your theory is pure conjecture。拟的理论纯粹是主观臆测。

  ◎ conjectural(adj)推测的,猜测的

  ★ surmise(vt)(书面语)suppose without having evidence that makes it certain;guess 猜测 某事物,猜想,揣测

  With no news from the explorers we can only surmise their present position。我们没有探险者的消 息,只能猜测他们现在所处的位置。


  Your first surmise is right。你第一次猜对了。

  ★ guess(v)give an answer,form an opinion or make a statement about sth without calculating or measuring 猜想,估计、臆测,猜测


  ◎ derangement(n)

  ★ upset(vt)打翻,弄翻(尤指无意的)


  7、fiend(n)dvilspirit;devil 恶魔,魔鬼;恶魔般的人,穷凶极恶的人

  The fiends of hell 地狱的魔鬼

  ★ devil(n)魔鬼,鬼怪;恶人,坏蛋,调皮鬼,淘气鬼

  8、pine(v)unhappy esp because sb has died or gone away 痛苦(尤指因生离死别)

  She certainly hasn’t been pining while you were away。你不在的时候她可并不难受。

  (vi)long for or miss sb/sth 渴望或想念某人 ~ for sb/sth

  They were pining to return home 他们渴望返回家园。

  ★ yearn(vi) desire strongly or with compassion or tenderness;be filled with longing 渴望, 怜悯,思念,留念,盼望 ~ for sb/sth

  They yearned for their home and family 他们怀念故国家园。

  ★ desire(vt)wish for sth;want 希望得到某事物,想要

  We all desire happiness and health。我们都希望幸福和健康。

  9、smother(vt)cause sb to die from lack of air;or from not being able to breathe;suffocate (使 某人)窒息,闷死

  She felt smothered with kindness ta 感受到难以消受的热情。


  Smother the flames from the burning pan with a wet towel。用湿毛巾把锅里的火扑灭。

  ★ choke(vi)be unable to breathe because one’s windpipe is blocked by sth 窒息;(掐住或阻 塞气管)使某人难以呼吸,呛 ~ on sth

  She choked to death on a fish bone。鱼刺把她卡住而窒息。

  ★ suffocate(vt)cause sb to die as a result of not being able to breathe 使某人窒息而死,将某


  Passengers suffocated in the burning aircraft。乘客在燃烧的飞机中窒息而亡。

  ★ throttle(vt)seize sb by the throat and stop him breathing;strangle 扼某人的颈部,使窒 息,勒死

  Throttle the guard before robbing the safe。勒死警卫然后枪保险箱。

  10、throb(vi)(of the heart,pulse,etc)beat,esp faster or stronger than usual (指心脏、 脉搏)跳动(尤指跳动较快或较强);悸动,搏动 ~ with sth

  Her heart was throbbing with excitement。她兴奋的心直跳


  The ships engine throbbed quietly。船上的发动机发出轻微的震动。

  ★ pulse(vi)move with strong regular movements;beat or throb 强列而有规律的跳动。搏动, 震动


  The news sent the blood pulsing through his veins 这消息使他的血液都沸腾起


  ★ flutter(vi)(of the wings of birds,butterflies,etc )move lightly and quickly (指鸟、 蝴蝶等的翅膀)轻而快的抖动,拍翅

  The wings of the bird still fluttered after it had been shot down。那鸟被击落后翅


  (vi)move about in quick irregular way 迅速而无规则的乱动;飘动

  a flag fluttering from the mast-head 在旗杆上飘扬着的旗帜。

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