考研英语

【考研英语】英语语法之:直接引语与间接引语精讲

来源:跨考2019-11-12

  在考研路上英语备考一直是一道难以跨越的砍,在考研英语中,一些重点语法考察频率很高,因此各位考生要予以重视。语法是英语学习的基础,下面小编整理了考研英语必备的语法,希望可以对同学们在复习语法时能有所帮助!跨考教育已经开设了寒假体验营,为各位答疑解惑,现在加群,更能收获各类考研资料→2021考研群

  本文讲解考研英语语法之【直接引语与间接引语】。语法是英语学习的基础,语法大关不过,阅读、完型、翻译和写作都会有难度,就别提过线和拿高分了。所以说,基础阶段,语法基础要打好。

  引用别人说的话叫引语(Quoted Speech)。引语分为直接引语(Direct Speech)和间接引语(Indirect Speech)。直接引语是直接引述别人的原话,间接引语是用自己的话转述别人的话。一般来说,直接引语前后要加引号,间接引语不用引号,而用宾语从句来表达。

  "I want to buy a new computer," he said.

  他说:“我想买一台新电脑。”(直接引语)

  He said that he wanted to buy a new computer.

  他说他想买一台新电脑。(间接引语)

  1.人称的变化

  在直接引语改为间接引语时,人称要相应地变化。下面有一句顺口溜可以方便大家记忆:“一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新”。

  “一随主”是指如果直接引语中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰,那变为间接引语时,从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化。

  He said,"My sister wants to go with me."

  他说:“我的妹妹想要跟我一起走。”(直接引语)

  He said his sister wanted to go with him.

  他说他的妹妹想要跟他一起走。(间接引语)

  “二随宾”是指若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称或被第二人称所修饰,从句中的人称要跟引述部分的主句的宾语一致。如果引述部分的主句没有宾语,也可以用第一人称。

  She said to Mike,“How is your litle sister now?”

  地问迈克:“你的妹妹现在怎么样了?”(直接引语)

  She asked Mike how his litle sister was then.

  地问迈克他的妹妹那时怎么样了。(间接引语)

  “第三人称不更新”是指如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰,从句中的人称一般不需要变化。

  Mr.John said,"Lucy is a good worker."

  的输先生说:“露西是个好员工。”(直接引语)

  Mr.John said Lucy was a good worker.

  约输先生说露西是个好员工。(间接引语)

  2.时态的变化

  在直接引语改为间接引语时,时态需要做相应的调整。

  ①主句的谓语动词是现在时、将来时或现在完成时,直接引语变为间接引语时,时态不变。

  He says,"I washed my clothes."

  他说:“我洗了我的衣服。”(直接引语)

  He says that he washed his clothes.

  他说他洗了他的衣服。(间接引语)

  He will say,"I have turned off the light."

  他会说:“我已经关了灯。”(直接引语)

  He will say he has turned off the light.

  他会说他已经关灯了。(间接引语)

  ②主句的谓语动词是一般过去时

  如果主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,直接引语变为间接引语时,动词时态发生一系列的变化,具体如下表所示:

直接引语 间接引语
一般现在时 一般过去时
现在进行时 过去进行时
现在完成时 过去完成时
一般过去时 过去完成时
过去完成时 过去完成时(不变)
一股将来时 过去将来时
一般将来进行时 过去将来进行时
一般将来完成时 过去将来完成时
 

  He said,"I usually write satories on Sunday.”

  他说:“我常在星期天写故事”。(直接引语)

  He said that he usually wrote stories on Sunday.

  他说他常在星期天写故事。(间接引语)

  He said,“I'm using the toilet.”

  他说:“我正在用厕所。”(直接引语)

  He said that he was using the toilet.

  他说他正在用厕所。(间接引语)

  She said,“I have not heard from him since last year."

  她说:“自从去年以来我就没有收到他的来信。”(直接引语)

  She said that she had not heard from him since last year.

  她说自从去年以来她就没收到他的来信。(间接引语)

  He said,"We shall have finished the task by Friday."

  他说:“我们将在周五以前完成工作。”(直接引语)

  He said that they should have finished the task by Friday.

  他说他们将在周五以前完成工作。(间接引语)

  ③时态不需要变化的情况

  >直接引语是客观真理。

  “The moon moves around the earth,"the teacher told us.

  “月亮绕着地球转,”老师告诉我们说。(直接引语)

  The teacher told us the moon moves around the earth.

  老师告诉我们月亮绕着地球转。(间接引语)

  >直接引语是过去进行时。

  Tom said,"John,where were you going when I called you last night?”

  汤姆说:“约输,我昨天晚上给你打电话的时候你去哪里了?”(直接引语)

  Tom asked John where he was going when he called him last night.

  汤姆问约输他昨天晚上给他打电话的时候他去哪里了。(间接引语)

  >直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语。

  She said,"I was born on May 20,1990.”

  她说:“我出生在1990年5月20日。”(直接引语)

  She said she was born on May 20,1990.

  地说地出生在1990年5月20日。(间接引语)

  >直接引语是一般现在时,表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作。

  He said,"I eat breakfast at seven every moming."

  他说:“我每天早上7点吃早饭。”(直接引语)

  He said he eats breakfast at seven every maming.

  他说他每天早上7点吨早饭。(间接引语)

  >直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(如ought to,had better,used to)和已经是过去时的形式(如could,should,would,might)。

  The leader said,"You had better read the article on Monday.

  领导说:“你最好周一读这篇文章。”(直接引语)

  The leader said I had better read the article on Monday.

  领导说我最好周一读这篇文章。(间接引语)

  3.指示代词、时间状语、地点状语、方向性动词的变化

  在直接引语变为间接引语时,指示代词、时间状语、地点状语、方向性动词的变化规则如下:

类型 直接引语 间接引语
指示代词 this/ these that/those
时间状语 now then,at once,at that time
today that day,the same day
tonight that night
this week (month..) that week (month...)
yesterday the day before,the previous day
the day before yesterday two days before
this week that week,the same week
last week/month the week/month before,the previous week/month
two weeks (months)ago two weeks (months)before
tomorow the next day,the following day
the day after tomorow in two days' time,two days after
three years ago three years before
next week/month the next week/ month,the following week/month
地点状语 here there,in that place
方向性动词

come

go
bring take
 

  He said,“I met my headmaster this moming.”

  他说:“我今天早展见到校长了。”(直接引语)

  He said that he had met his headmaster that moming.

  他说他那天早晨见到校长了。(间接引语)

  Lucy said,"I went there last week."

  露西说:“上周我去了那儿。”(直接引语)

  Lucy said that she had gone there the previous week.

  露西说上周她去了那儿。(间接引语)

  He said,"I will come here tonight.”

  他说:“今晚我将来这儿。”(直接引语)

  He said that he would go there that night.

  他说那晚他将去那儿。(间接引语)

  温馨提示:

  时间状语、地点状语、方向性动词不变化的情况。

  如果就地转述,here就不必改为there,come也不必改为go;如果当天转述,yesterday或tomorrow等时间状语也不必改变。直接引语中的一般过去时如与一个具体的过去时间状语连用,间接引语的一般过去时时态不变。

  Lee said,"I am free this moming

  李说:“我今天上午有空。”(直接引语)

  Lee said that he was free this moming

  李说他今天上午有空。(间接引语)

  4.句式的变化

  ①直接引语是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。

  She said,"Our manager will come in ten minutes."

  她说:“我们的经理十分钟后就会来。”(直接引语)

  She said that their manager would come in ten minutes.

  她说她们的经理十分钟后就会来。(间接引语)

  ②直接引语是反义疑问句、选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为

  由whether或if引导的宾语从句。

  She said,"Can you sing,Mike ?"

  她说:“迈克,你会唱歌吗?”(直接引语)

  She asked Mike if he could sing.

  她问迈克是否会唱歌。(间接引语)

  "You have brushed your teeth,haven't you?"my father asked.

  “你已经刷完牙了,对吗?”我父亲问我。(直接引语)

  My father asked me whether I had brushed my teeth.

  我父亲问我是否已经刷完牙了。(间接引语)

  ③直接引语是特殊同句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑间副词引导的宾语从句(英语从句必须用陈述句语序)。

  He asked me,"When do they have their get-together?

  他问我:“他们什么时候聚的会?”(直接引语)

  He asked me when they had their gel-together.

  他问我他们什么时候聚的会。(间接引语)

  ④直接引语是祈使句,间接引语应改为 tell/ask/order/beg…sb.(not) to do sth.”句型。

  “Bring me a cup of coffee,please,"she said to him.

  她对他说:“请给我拿一杯咖啡。”(直接引语)

  She asked him to bring her a cup of coffee.

  她要他给地拿一杯咖啡。(间接引语)

  ⑤直接引语是以“Les”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用“suggest +动名词(或从句)”.

  She said,"Let's go to school."

  她说:“我们去上学吧!”(直接引语)

  She suggested going to school.

  她建议去上学。(间接引语)

  She suggested that they should go to school.

  她建议她们应该去上学。(间接引语)

  以上是跨考小编为考生整理的“考研英语必备英语语法”的相关内容,希望对大家有帮助!准备开启2021考研征程的你,需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式,跨考教育已经开设了寒假体验营,为各位答疑解惑,想了解更多考研相关内容,关注微信公众号:跨考考研集训营,或者扫描下方二维码进行关注,敬请关注我们的跨考网!

  

  (本文由跨考教育教研室综合整理。)

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