考研英语

【考研英语】英语语法之:限定性和非限定性定语从句

来源:跨考2019-11-18

  在考研路上英语备考一直是一道难以跨越的砍,在考研英语中,一些重点语法考察频率很高,因此各位考生要予以重视。语法是英语学习的基础,下面小编整理了考研英语必备的语法,希望可以对同学们在复习语法时能有所帮助!跨考教育已经开设了寒假体验营,为各位答疑解惑,现在加群,更能收获各类考研资料→2021考研群

  本文讲解考研英语语法之【限定性和非限定性定语从句】。语法是英语学习的基础,语法大关不过,阅读、完型、翻译和写作都会有难度,就别提过线和拿高分了。所以说,基础阶段,语法基础要打好。

  限定性和非限定性定语从句

  定语从句根据它与先行词之间的关系分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。二者的区别如下表所示:

  1.限定性定语从句的例句

  Those who reveal the company's secrects will be fired.

  泄意公司机密者将会被开除。

  That's the girl (whom) my brother is going to mary.

  那就是我哥哥要娶的姑娘。

  The second-hand bike (that) I bought yesterday is almost new.

  我昨天买的那个二手自行车几乎是新的。

  2.非限定性定证从句的例句

  Her father,who loves her very much,is strict with her.

  她父亲十分地爱地,对她要水很严格。

  She was very patient with the children,which her mother seldom was.

  她对孩子们很有耐心,她母亲却很少这样。

  The Spring Festival is a holiday, when people get together at home.

  春节是人们回家团浆的一个节日。

  注意:

  非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词,对其进行修饰。此时,从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。

  He seems not to have understood what I taught,which greatly bothers me.

  他似乎没明白我所教的内容,这使我心烦。

  定语从句中需要注意的几个问题

  1.如何选择关系代词与关系副词

  ①以句中的调语动词是及物动词且后面无宾语时,就用关系代词:是不及物动词时,则用关系副词。

  This is the ciy where I worked last year.

  这是成去年工作的城市。(work是不及物动词)

  This is the city (which) I visited last year.

  这是我去年访问的城市。(visit是及物动词,且后面无宾语)

  I'Il never forget the days when I stayed with you.

  我不会忘记和你在一起的时光。(stay是不及物动词)

  I'Il never forget the days (which) I spent in Shanghai.

  我不会忘记在上海待的日子。(spend是及物动词,且后面无宾语)

  ②看关系词在定语从句中充当的成分。在从句中作主语、定语安语时,选择关系代词:在从句中作状语时,选择关系副词。

  I know a place where we can have a date.

  我知道一个我们可以约会的地方。(地点状语)

  I know a place which/that is famous for its colorful historical culture.

  我知道一个以丰富的历史文化而闻名的地方。(主语)

  This is the reason why he got sick.

  这就是他生病的原因。(原因状语)

  This is the reason that/which he explained to me for his absence.

  这就是他向我解释的他缺席的原因。(宾语)

  2.限定性定语从句只能用 that 引导的情况

  ①序数词或形容词最高级修饰先行词时。

  This is one of the most moving films that I have ever seen.

  这是我看过最感人的电影之一。

  She is the finest boss that John has ever worked for these ten years.

  她是约翰这十年来所为之工作过的最好的老板。

  ②先行词被every,any,all,some,no,litle,few,much,cach 等修饰时。

  Mike has no money that he can spare.迈克根本没有多余的钱。

  I have written down every word that you said.我已经记下了你说的每一个字。

  ③something,eveything,anything,nothing,nobody,all,none,few,little,some,much等不定代词作先行词时。

  We have done all that can be done.我们已经做了所有能做的。

  There seems to be nothing that is exciting to him in the company.

  公司里好像没有什么事情令他兴奋。

  ④先行词被the only,the very,the sorme,the last 修饰时。

  This is the very novel that I want to read.这正是我想读的小说。

  Of all the students,she is the last that would get A in math.

  在所有学生中,她是最不可能在数学上得A的。

  ⑤主句中已经有who或which时。

  Who is the woman thar is waiting for you?

  正在等你的那位女士是谁?

  Which is the dictionary that we needed in class?

  我们课堂上需要的是哪本字典?

  ⑥先行词既指人又指物时。

  They talked about the persons and things that they remembered in the twenties.

  他们谈论了他们所记的二十年代的人和事。

  John always talks of the people and the books that interested him.

  约翰总是谈到引起他兴趣的人物和书播。

  ⑦主句是 there be结构,修饰主语的定语从句用 that

  There is a pen on the desk that belongs to Mike.

  桌子上那支笔是迈克的。

  There are a few vacant positions that are suitable for you.

  有几个适合你的空缺的职位。

  3.that在限定性定语从句中可以取代关系副词的情况

  在限定性定语从句中,先行词为the time,the place,the reason,the way,the moment,the period 等名词时,that可以取代关系副词when,where,why 或某些“介词+which”结构,并且在口语中,that可以省略。

  By the time that you get up,breakfast will be ready.

  你起床的时候,早饭就好了。

  Do you know the place (that) he works now?

  你知道他现在工作的地方吗?

  4.as和which引导非限定性定语从句时的区别

  ①as引导的非限定性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后、主句中间,常常有“正如、,正像”的含义。which引导的非限定性定语从句只可放在主句之后。

  As is known to all,America is a developed country.

  众所周知,美国是发达国家。

  Mr.Han,our manager,is from the south,as we can know from his accent.

  我们的经理韩先生是南方人,这一点我们可以从他的口音得知。

  ②当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用which。

  He was late for class again and again,which made his teacher very angry.

  他老是上课迟到,这使得老师很恼火。

  He refused to do that job,which annoyed the others.

  他拒绝做那份工作,这使大家都不快。

  注意:

  as和which指代前面的主句并在从句中作主语时,如果从句的谓语是系动词时,只能用as;若为行为动词,只能用which。

  It rained hard yesterday,which prevented me from playing basketball outside.

  昨天的雨下得很大,这让我不能在户外打篮球。

  She is very beautiful and has a kind heart,as is her mother.

  她漂亮、热心肠,和地母亲一样。

  5.定语从句和同位语从句的区别

  ①定语从句与前面的名词是修饰与被修饰的关系;同位语从句与前面的名词是同位关系。

  The news that he won the English contest is true.

  他赢得英语比赛的消息是真的。(同位语从句)

  The news that my father told me this morming is true.

  今天早上父亲告诉我的那个消息是真的。(定语从句)

  ②各类名词都可以作定语从句的先行词,但只有抽象名词才能放在同位语从句的前面,这类抽象名词有news,idea,fact,promise,question,doubt,thought,hope等等。

  ③定语从句的引导词在从句中可作主语、英语、表语、状语等;但同位语从句的引导词在从句中不作任何成分,只起连接作用。

  The report that he gave surprises everyone in the meeting.

  他给的报告令在会的每个人感到吃惊。(定语从句,that在从句中作gave的宾语)

  The fact that they didn't get a good job has to be faced.

  必须面对他们没有找到一份好工作这一现实。(同位语从句,that在从句中不作成分)

  ④引导定语从句的连接词有时可以省去,而引导同位语从句的连接词则不可省去。

  The first thing (that) I'm going to do when I get up is to drink a glass of water.

  我起床时要做的第一件事情就是喝一杯水。(定语从句)

  I make a promise that I will go to France for holiday this year.

  我许诺,我今年要去法国度假。(同位语从句)

  ⑤when,where,why引导的定语从句前有表示时间、地点、原因的名词,但在引导同位语从句时前面没有表示时间、地点、原因的名词。

  I still remember the day when(=on which)I first got salary.

  我仍记得我第一次拿工资的那一天。(定语从句)

  I have no idea where I will go with my boyfriend for holidays.

  我不知道和男朋友到哪里去度假。(同位语从句)

  以上是跨考小编为考生整理的“考研英语必备英语语法”的相关内容,希望对大家有帮助!准备开启2021考研征程的你,需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式,跨考教育已经开设了寒假体验营,为各位答疑解惑,想了解更多考研相关内容,关注微信公众号:跨考考研集训营,或者扫描下方二维码进行关注,敬请关注我们的跨考网!

  

  (本文由跨考教育教研室综合整理。)

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