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北京大学2002年博士研究生入学考试试题_跨考网
跨考考研2008-01-11
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跨考考研

Part One:  Structure and Written Expression


Direction: In each question decide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Put the letter of your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (20%)

1 .The doctor's ____ is that she'll soon be as good as new if she takes insulin and watches her diet.

  A. agnosticism   B. anticipation    C. diagnosis  D. prognosis

2. It is ____ understood by all concerned that the word no one who visits him ever breathe a syllable of m his hearing will remain forever unspoken.

  A. uncommunicatively                      B. acceptably

  C. tacitly                            D. taciturnly

3.  ____  springs not out of true and deep admiration, but more often out of a self-seeking wish to identify with someone important or famous.

  A. A compliment                          B. An adulatory

  C. Flattery                             D. Praise

4. Leaving for work m plenty of time to catch the train will ___worry about being late.

  A. rule off    B. prevent      C. avoid     D. obviate

5. Nicholas Chauvin, a French soldier, aired his veneration of Napoleon Bonaparte so _____ and unceasingly that he became the laughingstock of all people in Europe.

  A. vociferously                          B. patriotically

  C. verbosely                            D. loquaciously

6. People suffering from ____prefer to stay shut in their homes and become panic-stricken m large public buildings and open fields.

   A, acrophobia                           B. agoraphobia

   C. claustrophobia                        D. xenophobia

7. All normal human beings are ____ at least to a degree --they get a feeling of warmth and kinship from engaging in group activities.

A. segregated                   B. congregational

C, gregarious                     D. egregious

8. He is ___  drinker, who has been imbibing for so long that he has figuratively speaking, grown old with the vice.

A. an inveterate                           B. an incorrigible

  C. a chronic                          D. an unconscionable

9. We listened dumb-struck, full of_____, to the shocking details of the corruption of the ex-president of the compare.

  A. incredality                  B. ingenuity

  C. ingenuousness                D. incredibility

10. Too much ___ can possibly lead to unhappiness, even to thoughts of suicide as few people have the courage to analyze themselves objectively and minutely.

  A. retrospect                       B. retrospection

  C. perspicacity                   D. perspicuity

11 .Hydrocarbons, ___ by engine exhausts, react with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight to form complex toxic gases.

  A. are given off                         B. give off

  C. they are given off                       D. given off

12. He could hardly _____his temper when he saw the state of his office.

   A. hold in   B. hold up   C. hold off   D. hold out

13.The statesman was evidently ____by the journalist's questions and glared at him for a few seconds.

   A. put down   B. put out   C. put across   D. put away

14. ____ , it is widely used in making flares and fireworks.

   A, As the brilliant white light that burning magnesium produces

   B. Because of the brilliant white light of burning magnesium

   C. The brilliant white light of burning magnesium

   D. Burning magnesium produces a brilliant white light

15.____ to tell us that the interest of the individual should be subordinate to that

   of the collective?

    A. Were you used                    B. Are you used

   C. Did you use                      D. Do you used

16.I would have gone to the lecture with you ____ I was so busy.

   A. except that  B. provided that  C. but that   D. only that

17.The detective watched and saw the suspect _____   a hotel at the comer of  the street.

     A.  getting off the taxi and walking into

     B.  got off the taxi and walked into

     C.  get off the taxi and walk into

     D. got off the taxi to walk into

18. The child is ____ all the evidence for his opinion.

    A. not encouraged either to be critical or to examine

    B. encouraged either to be critical nor to examine

    C. either encouraged to be critical or to examine

    D. neither encouraged to be critical nor to examine

19. To be sure, there would be scarcely no time left over for other things if school children __ all sides of every matter on which they hold opinions.

    A. would have been expected to have considered

    B. were expected to consider

    C. will be expected to have been considered

    D. were expected to have considered

20. Whenever work is being done, energy___ from one form into another.

    A. converts  B. converted      C. is converted    D. is being converted

Part Two : Reading Comprehension

I.   Direction: Each of the passages is followed by some questions  For each question four answers are given. Read the passages carefully and choose the best

answer to each question. Pat your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (10%)

                                  

                             Passage On

The Aerospace Bicycle That Fell to Earth

   ( 1 ) A radical new bicycle had its first public showing at the National British Cycling Championships in Shrewsbury last weekend. Based on the gold medal-winning design from the Barcelona Olympics, it is the first commercial mountain bike made of a single piece of carbon fibre.

       (2) Bicycles for amateurs have up to now nom made of steel aluminium or magnesium tubes welded together into the conventional "A-flame" shape. But last year, the British competitor  Chris Boardman set world records while winning titles in the Olympic cycling pursuit events on a custom-built ,carbon-fibre bicycle with lower weight and wind resistance than standard models .Because carbon fibre is both light and extremely strong, it does not need the A-frame shape, saving further weight. Carbon fibre can also be moulded in a single piece, avoiding the weakness of welds.

       (3) ,The new bike, which will cost between $2000 and $3000 when it reaches the shops next month, has the same advantages as the Olympic model. It weighs about 11 kilograms, a saving of 1.5 kilograms  on metal frames .With no crossbar, it has a lower centre of gravity, making it easier to use in race conditions. "When you're doing some aggressive riding, you throw the bike about form side to side," explains Eddie Eccleston,, director of British Eagle, a British bicycle manufacturer based in Powys, Wales, which is ***** the bikes. "The low centre of gravity gives you better control."

        (4) The frames are being made in the US for British Eagle by SP systems in Camarillo, California, which has clients in the aerospace industry. "This is aerospace technology brought into cycling by enthusiasts," says Eccleston. When professionals tested racing versions of the bike before the Tour de France, they were quicker than metal versions by up to 3 seconds per kilometre.

        (5) The new design has no struts  between the saddle and the back wheel; instead, the frame's flexibility  can be "tuned" to individual tastes by changing the mixture of Kevlar fibre and carbon fibre in the back wheel strut , allowing up to 5 centimetres of movement.

        (6) The carbon-fibre design has a lower centre of gravity and smoother back-wheel suspension than conventional bikes.

2l. The new bicycle exhibited at the National British Cycling Championships was radical because_____


      A.  it was made from the gold medal-winning design of the Barcelona Olympics

      B.  it was the fast commercial mountain bike

      C.  its public showing last weekend aroused many people's curiosity

       D.  it was made of one single piece of carbon fibre

22. According to the context, "bicycles for amateurs" at the beginning of the second paragraph refers to bicycles_____

       A.  that people buy only for riding in their daily life

       B  that are bought by amateur cyclists  who like cycling as an exercise

       C.  that are built for customers in general

       D.  that non-Olympic competitors use

  23. Which of the following statements is Not true ?

       A  The new commercial bike has no crossbar and its centre of gravity is lower          than the Olympic model.

    B.  When the rider is doing some rough riding, the new bike's low cetnre of         gravity gives him better control.

    C.  The new bike is made by using aerospace technology and is quicker than the conventional bike by 3 seconds per kilometre.

    D.  The new bike has no metal bar between the saddle and the back wheel, and          the amount of carbon fibre used in the back wheel can be changed according to the user's taste.

                

                   Passage Two

                           Free Advice Is Just Around the Corner

      (1) When Daniel Franklin, a political science professor from Atlanta, needed career advancement advice, he didn't turn to colleagues, therapists or even his mom.

      (2) He went to the Advice Ladies.

     (3) Three thirty something New York women, advertising freelancers by day, have turned themselves into Saturday afternoon street-comer oracles, they pull up lawn chairs and a table on a lower Manhattan street comer and dish out free advice to passersby. They've claimed the comer of West Broadway and Broome Street in Soho as their own for the last several months.

      (4) Amy Alkon, who, with longtime friends Marlowe Minnick and Carolyn Johnson, becomes a part-time shrink each weekend. "We use creative problem-solving to turn problem into fun," she says.

      (5) On a recent steamy afternoon, a line has formed in front of the Advice Ladies' table. Obviously, New Yorkers need plenty of help. "People feel they have no control in this crazy world. And therapy can take years," Minnick says. "We solve problems instantly, it's instant answer gratification'

       (6) The three brainstorm before delivering advice on everything from pet discipline, closet-space management, even hair care. But no legal advice. "By far, most of our questions are love-related . It's amazing the intimate ***ual problems that people will divulge to a total stranger," Alkon says.

      (7) But they won't be strangers much longer. The Advice Ladies are putting together a book deal. And Robert De Niro is crewing a talk show around them, due nationally this fall from his Tribeca Picutres.

      (8) "De Niro asked us for advice, but we think he's already perfect," purrs  Alkon.

       (9) And their career advice to Franklin? "He's  written a book, so we told him to get a manager and go on the touring circuit. It's great money and great publicity for the book"

      (10) "Good advice," says Franklin.

24. There were_____

     A.  about 30 New York women who offered free advice by day

     B.  three women freelancers about 30 years old who offered advertising advice          on Saturday

     C.  about 30 women advertising freelancers offered advice every Saturday           afternoon in New york

     D.  three women about 30 years old, who did advertising as a job, offered free          advice every Saturday afternoon

25. These advisors____

     A  changed the New York street comers into oracles

     B.  used the New York street comers as their advice office

     C.  sat at a street comer to give people free advice

     D.  made a street comer their place to predict the future to passersby

26. New Yorkers came to the Advice Ladies because____

     A.  the ladies' advice was quick and effective to solve problems

     B.  New Yorkers felt it was difficult to live in this crazy world

     C   Medical therapy could net solve people's problems

     D.  New York was a crazy place and its inhabitants need plenty of help

27. In the seventh paragraph we read that the Advice Ladies won't be strangers for long because____

     A.   they are dealing with a book together and a TV man is writing a talk show about them

     B.   they are going to sell a book about themselves and also appear on a TV show

     C.   they will buy a book through a deal and appear in a film in the coming fall season

     D.  they will get to know each other better by working on a book and appearing in a TV show together

              

                       Passage Three

                       The American Presidential Gala of 1993

      (1) Mixing populism and celebrity, Clinton dances into office with a week-long multimillion-dollar party full of stars, saxophone music and presidential hugs.

     (2) The Party was held m a way never seen since World War II. Many movie and music stars showed up, offering their wishes to a new administration. They sang songs like "You know, Bill's gonna get this Country  straight" '93! You and me! U-ni-tee!/Time to partee with Big Bill and Hillaree."

      (3) The stars came out in constellation because they recognized in Clinton one of their own. Not just that he plays the saxophone, a little. Or that Hillary is a smart, tough lawyer, like most Hollywood moguls. What matters is that Clinton is a beacon of middle-class charm, a lover of being loved, a believer in the importance of image, metaphor, style. And he is an ace manipulator of media, selling his symbols directly to the people on TV, without the interference of nosy journalists. It all makes far a wondrous '90s blend of show biz and politic.

      (4) "This is our time," Clinton said in his Inaugural  Address." Let us embrace it." Last week he had an embrace for everyone, and not just the stars. This huggy-bear President needs to feel the public's approval.

      (5) At one of the balls of the week, Clinton was like the college student who drops in the night before the exam to show he's one of the guys, then sneaks back to his dorm to cram. Perhaps there is as much Nixon in him (the ambition, the intellect) as Kennedy (the charm, the recklessness, his position as centrist custodian of liberal dreams). He will need to be the best of both men if he is to close, as he said last week, "the gap between our words and our deeds."

      (6) During the gala, actor Edward James Olmos quoted Lincoln: "We must disenthrall ourselves, and then we shall save our courntry." Clinton, a good student with a good memory, mouthed the words as Olmos spoke  them. Clinton must have realized that, in a different sense and different  era, America faces the task of disenthralling itself, of shaking off the Hollywood stardust and facing facts.

      (7) In 1992 Clinton vended optimism; now he must be careful in saying so. He sold the nation a miracle product, ALL-NEW HOPE: it gives you cleaner, cheaper government with a fresh minty flavor. But if it doesn't get the stains out, the electorate's high hopes could sour into despair. Then the man called Hope will become the man called Hype. All the big stars and better angels will leave him out in the spotlight, stranded, unmasked.

   

28. The meaning of "Clinton dances into his office, with a week-long multimillion-dollar party full of stars, saxophone music and presidential hugs" in the first paragraph is:


      A.  Clinton held a party and danced with film stars and musicians, and hugged his guests

      B.  Clinton went into his office followed by rich film stars and musicians who wanted to be hugged by the president

     C.  Clinton started his term of president's work with a week-long gala of celebrities and music to celebrate the event

     D.  Clinton spent a great deal of money to give a party of dance and music to please the film stars and important people

29. By saying "Bill's gonna get this Country straight", the party attendants believe that____

    A.   Money bills are important in getting things done for the United States

    B.   The president has got to do a wonderful job to save America

    C.   Clinton will change the United States to a free country

    D.   Clinton is going to solve the problems of the United States

30. Which of the following statements is True?

    A.  At one of the balls, Clinton appeared shortly and then left in a quiet way to do his work.

    B.   Clinton was certainly a combination of both Nixon and Kennedy.

    C.   Clinton said at the Party that he was going to close his mouth and work harder.

    D.   When Olmos quoted Lincoln, Clinton repeated the words as Olmos spoke them.

II.  Direction: Read the following passage carefully and then explain in your own English the exact meaning of the numbered an d underlined parts . (15%)

     Medical consumerism--like all sorts of consumerism, only more menacingly--is designed to be unsatisfying. (31) The prolongation of life and the search for perfect health (beauty. youth, happiness) are inherently self-defeating, The law of diminishing returns necessarily applies. You can make higher percentages of people survive into their eighties and nineties. But, as any geriatric ward shows, that is not the same as to confer enduring mobility, awareness and autonomy. (32)grows medically feasible, but it is often a life deprived of everything and one exposed to  degrading neglect as resources grow over-stretched and polities turn  mean.

     What an ignominious destiny for medicine if its future tamed into one of bestowing meager increments of unenjoyed life! It would mirror the fate of athletics, in which disproportionate energies and resources--not least medical ones, like illegal steroids--are now invested to shave records by milliseconds. And, it goes without saying, the logical extension of longevism--the "abolition" of death--would net be a solution but only an exacerbation. (33) To air these predicaments is not anti-medical spleen--a churlish reprisal against medicine for its victories--but simply to face the growing reality of medical power not exactly without responsibility but with

dissolving goals,

     (34) Hence medicine's finest hour becomes the dawn of its dilemmas For centuries, medicine was impotent and hence unproblematic, From the Greeks to the Great War, its job was simple to struggle with lethal diseases and gross disabilities, to ensure live births, and to mintage pain. It performed these uncontroversial tasks by and large with meager success. Today, with mission accomplished, medicine's triumphs are dissolving m disorientation, (35) Medicine has led to vastly inflated expectations, which the public has eagerly swallowed. Yet as these expectations grow unlimited, they become unfulfillable. The task facing medicine in the twenty-first century will be to redefine its limits even as it extends its capacities.

Part Three: Cloze Test

Direction: Fill in each numbered blank in the following passage with ONE suitable word to complete the passage Put your answers in the ANSWER

SHEET. (10%)

    For______(36) the bloodshed and tragedy of D-Day, the beaches of Normandy will always evoke a certain ______(37): a yearning for a time when nations in the civilized world buried their differences and combined to oppose absolute evil, when values seemed clearer and the retable consequences of war stopped ______ (38) of the annihilation of humanity. But over half a century after the Allies hit those wave-battered sand flats and towering cliffs, the Normandy invasion stands as a feat _______ (39) to be repeated.

    There will never be ____ (40) D-Day. Technology has changed the conditions of warfare in ways that none of the D-Day participants could have __(41), Ali-out war in the beginnings of this century would surely spell all-out _____ (42) for the belligerents, and possibly for the entire human race. No credible scenario for a future world war would allow time for the massive buildup' of conventional forces that occurred in the 1940s. The moral equivalent of the Normandy invasion in the nuclear age would involve a presidential decision to put tens of millions of American lives at _____ (43). And the possible benefits for the allies would be uncertain at best

European defense experts often ask whether the U.S. would be willing to "trade Pittsburgh for  'Dusseldorf.” In practice, the question may well be whether it is worth ____ (44) American cities to avenge a Europe already _____ (45) to rubble.

Part Four: Proofreading

Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether l0 mistakes, one in each underlined sentence or part. of a sentence. You may have to change a word, add a word or just delete a word. lf you change a word, cross it out with a slash(\) and write the correct word. lf you add a word, write the missing word between the words (in bracket3) immediately before and after it. If you delete a word, cross it out with a slash (\), Put your ,answers in the

ANSWER SHEET. (10%)

Examples:

eg. 1 (46) The meeting begun 2 hours ago

          Correction in the ANSWER SHEET: (46) begun began

eg.2 (47) Scarcely they settled themselves in their seats in the theatre when the curtain went up.

          Correction in the ANSWER SHEET: (47) (Scarcely) had (they)

eg. 3 (48) Never will I not do it again.

          Correction in the ANSWER SHEET: (48) not

       (46) A state university president was arrested today and charged with impersonate a police officer because, the authorities say, he pulled over a speeding driver here last month. (47) Using flashing headlights, Richard L. Judd, 64, the president of Central Connecticut State University. made the driver, Peter Baba  24. of Plainville. pull on Jan, 23. the state police said. (48) He then flashed a gold badge and barked at him for speed, they said.

        (49) Mr. Judd is New Britain's police commissioner from 1981 to 1989 and from I993 to 1995. (50) But Detective Harold Gannon of the New Britain police said today that the job involved more policy as police work, and did not include the authority to charge or chide criminals. (51) The gold badge was mere a university award. (52) The governor said he would not ask for a resignation because Mr. Judd had made a "misjudgment" and had written a letter of apologizing.

    (53) Later, Mr. Judd's lawyer, Paul J. Mcouillan, issued a long apology from his superior, whom he described as "the best thing to happen to New Britain." (54) "My experience and instinct as an E.M.T. and former police commissioner prompted me to involve myself with this matter," Mr. Judd said in the statement. (55) "In hindsight, I see it was mine to manage."

Part Five: Writing

Direction:   Write a short composition of about 250 to 300 words on the topic

given below: (15%)

Topic:  Write m 250-300 words about China’s auto industry.

                           

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